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Walter E. Fernald 
State School 

Waverley, Massachusetts 





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margaret\macdowael9 * 


(R. T. LEACH). 

27-29, Furnival Street, Holborn, E.C.4 


Chapter I. 
Teacher and Atmosphere ... 

Chapter II. 
"He and She" 

General Training 
Details of Training 
Industrial Lessons 
Move and Make Move 

Chapter, III. 

Chapter IV. 

Chapter V. 

Chapter VI. 

Chapter VII. 

"The Letter Killeth, but the Spirit Giveth Life 
Phonetic Chart 


Appendix ... ... ... ... 

Index . 

I. Nervous Boy 
II. Nervous Girl 
IIL Nervous Girl 
IV. , V. ? VI. Mongol Boys 
VII. Stands and Rings 
VIII. Ball Placing and Dropping 
VIIlA. Tablet-Threading 
IX. Wooden Blocks with Holes 
X. Writing Chart 
XL Knife Cleaning 
XII. Flat Wooden Needles 
XIII. , XIV., XV. Walking Appliances 
XVI. Children Dancing 

.. 1- 5 

... 6-17 

. 18-30 

. 31-54 

. 55-87 

. 88-98 

















.. 95 



The kindly reception of the first edition of this book 
and the many favourable notices in the medical, educa- 
tional and general Press, make it clear that it filled a 
distinct want in the literature of the subject. Its suc- 
cess, in the effort to cover a field where the labourers 
had been very few, was both gratifying and encouraging 
— gratifying, because it showed that the specialised 
knowledge was proved to be of considerable use to 
other workers ; encouraging, because those other workers 
recognised its value. 

Now that a second edition has been called for, oppor- 
tunity has been taken to bring it up-to-date and more 
completely into line with modern advances. Important 
additions have been made dealing with the beginning 
of speech-training, the treatment of which was omitted 
from the first edition, the author feeling that her ideas 
on this subject were unorthodox. They are given fully 
in this edition in Chapter VII., with which is con- 
nected a phonetic chart for use of teachers. 

Burgess Hill. 



My friend, Miss Margaret Macdowall, has asked me 
to write a few prefatory words to her little treatise. 
Having known her and her excellent work in the 
training of mentally deficient children for over twenty 
years, I have much satisfaction in stating my opinion 
that her interest, insight and practical experience in 
the subject she has selected for the theme of her book 
render her exceptionally competent to write with 
authority on all that concerns the amelioration of the 
condition of pupils of a low grade of intelligence. I 
have had the privilege of watching the development 
of her little pupils under the fostering care so sedu- 
lously and lovingly bestowed on them, and consequently 
am able from personal observation to attest the success 
of her methods, even in some cases apparently offering 
but little prospect of amelioration. It is gratifying 
that she has at length been induced to put into print 
some account of her methods, which cannot fail to be 
suggestively serviceable to others who are striving to 
benefit young mental defectives of a class that some 
might regard as beyond educability, but who, when 
properly understood and suitably instructed, prove 
to be capable of being elevated in the scale not only of 
their physical and intellectual but of their spiritual 
being. I heartily commend this book to the consider- 
ation of all interested in these " little ones," whose 
welfare, alike from the social and religious standpoint, 
must never be despised. 

G. E. Shuttleworth. 




I have been asked to try to write of my work in 
training young imbecile children. I am making the 
attempt in the humble hope that some of these little 
ones, who, from failure of power and desire to express 
themselves, are thought unable to appreciate that 
reverential sympathy which is their birthright, may 
be better understood. 

I am writing as practically and simply as possible. 
The medical and psychological sides have been well 
set forth. All the latest books on Children's Diseases 
have chapters on causation and types of mental defect; 
recent editions of Nursing books, and books on the 
Child, are including the subject also. The fourth 
edition of Drs. Shuttleworth and Potts' Mentally 
Deficient Children leaves little to be desired. 

If anything I write is of interest or use, I owe the 
fact to three people, to whom I gratefully dedicate this 
little offering — Dr. Shuttleworth, my teacher and 
guide; Miss Bertha James, who made my experience 
possible ; and my youngest sister, Miss L. O. Mac- 
dowall, who has, by her generous shouldering of the 
business part of my school, enabled me to go on with it. 

I use the terms " Idiot " and " Imbecile," as I am 
anxious it should be understood that I am not writing 
of the merely backward child, but of the children of 
whose mental inferiority there is no doubt, and who 
will need help and comfort so long as they live. 

In 1913, after the passing of the Mental Deficiency 
Act, I decided to retire and live with only a few 

[ vii. ] 

children somewhere in the recesses of the country. I 
felt I could not work under inspection of those who 
possibly might be unsympathetic. In July, 1916, Mrs. 
Pinsent made an inspection of my school as a Com- 
missioner of the Board of Control. She gave me so 
much encouragement, and seemed thereby to awake all 
my withering keenness into new life, that I am still 
at work, and by her desire venture to offer to others 
this record of my lengthened experience. 

I may add a word as to the value of Seguin's 
pioneer teachings and of later elaborations by Madame 

Margaret Macdowall. 


Burgess Hill 


[ viii. ] 



" Himself took our infirmities and bare our sicknesses. " 

It was my intention to write two chapters, one fo* 
each of these subjects, but I found the one a repetition 
of the other, so I have joined them. 

In training the young to become teachers of deeply 
defective children, it is necessary to give good reasons 
for the utter sacrifice of personal desires indispensable 
to make, in order to become successful in the work. 

At first, the questions often presented are, " Why 
teach them? They are happier let alone; the result is 
so small, and these children are not chargeable for 
their own actions ; they will go to Heaven any way, why 
make them suffer here, as they needs must and do 
suffer, through overcoming their weaknesses and learn- 
ing to will to do right from points* religious and 
moral? Keep them warm and well fed and leave them 
alone.' ' 

Knowing as I do, from many years thought and 
study, that no human being is meant to inhabit the 
world without attaining its maximum of faculty 
possible under earthly conditions, even though the 
support from without must be life-long, I want to 
strive to make clear that mental training and help for 
these invalids mean beauty and life, i.e., spiritual 
and vital developments, while the mere care of the 
body alone must mean stagnation, if nothing worse. 

If we look upon anyone born with a disabling 
physical defect, with one accord there is a rush to find 
a remedy for it; no one would deny the righteousness 
and humanity of such a course. How many good men 
and women give their lives to this work, and yet, 
after all their efforts to cure, it proves that sometimes 


throughout life support must come from without. We 
do not ask if it would not be befcler for these who are 
physically unsound to be left alone, lest even the 
partial remedy should cause pain ; nor do we look for 
reward if we have to lend a hand of flesh and blood 
to a person to help him to walk as long as he lives ! 

It is difficult to get people practically to realise the 
needs of the deeply defective. I have tried to find 
something we can take as a model to live up to. 

Bishop Creighton, in his Thoughts on Education, 
suggests that Apollos is a true teacher. I have always 
felt that his words gave me light on the work, and 
turn to them again and again when I need help. He 
points out that Apollos was fervent in spirit; there 
was a new power within him, changing the old, creat- 
ing the new ; restoring, remaking, rendering his being 
responsive to the voice of God, and to the needs of his 
fellowmen. He says Apollos was living, quick, alert, 
ready ; and he goes on to say that he did not allow 
fervour of spirit to make up for carefulness, and that 
all true education consists in the laying of one soul 
by the side of another soul ; that the souls of children 
can only be reached by those whose own souls have 
something of the simplicity of childhood. 

What a living truth do these words convey ! It 
seems to me that my poor thoughts and faltering 
expression cannot be needed to show the teacher w T hat 
is required. I feel we cannot too often turn back to 
such words; each time we understand them freshly, 
and realise that we, whose vocation it is to create, 
restore, remake the very foundations of character by 
appropriate training, cannot be grateful enough for 
the illuminating help given to us here. 

The training to become successful developers of 
these unopened buds is hard, and often discouraging, 
disheartening, depressing, and withal wearying. 1 
venture to put the divine words at the head of this 
chapter because it is almost impossible for the young 
teacher to be satisfied with her work without some 


solid assurance of the truth of the need of her 
efforts. To begin the training merely from the 
physical side, getting control of the body, trying to 
get the will to use the power that exists, though 
imperfect in every case (even though in this world the 
development of its expression may never win praise 
for the educator) means real hardship for the teacher. 
The uncleanly habits, wanton mischief and destruction, 
screams of rage when coercive methods are used (for 
which she indeed may be blamed), become all too 
grievous to be borne unless she too has support from 
without. If one can get people to see that we may be 
imitators of our Lord, and make the infirmities and 
sicknesses of these little ones our own, all we have to 
go through to get them to develop and work seems 
indeed worth while, and we become able to take joy in 
our task without the ambition of achieving a striking 
result, so far as people who look on are concerned. 

We teachers must constitute ourselves builders as 
well as educators, for these children lack storage of 
impressions. Their minds are devoid of alertness, so 
that without help they do not register sensorial impres- 
sions; indeed, very often they are mentally in the 
condition of a new-born baby, with all the pathos of 
having ineffectively lived, and looked, and felt, and 
heard for years. I should like all teachers to read with 
understanding Browning's poem, Abt Vogler. Let 
me quote one stanza : — 

" There shall never be one lost good ; what was shall live as 

before ' y 
The evil is null, is nought, is silence implying sound ; 
What was good shall be good, with, for evil, so much good 

On the earth the broken arcs ; in the heaven a perfect 


I often learn afresh from this poem, though I have 

been drawing encouragement from it for many years. 

It should help us to think that each time our little 

ones succeed in self-mastery they are one step further 

on the way to achieve the " perfect round " it speaks 


of, though — like us all — they are broken arcs here. I 
am sure that many people will not agreed with me, 
and think I am romancing, when I say that among 
the deeply mentally defective there lie latent souls of 
saints, heroes and martyrs. One must work with them 
to know. 

I cannot adequately express how necessary it is that 
in any school or home for these children there should 
be a perfect oneness of aim among the staff. If there 
is not unity and sympathy amongst the teachers, no 
atmosphere warm enough for the development of the 
children can be produced, for what one has just 
succeeded in fanning into flame by great effort, an- 
other blows out, and then the kindling must begin 

It is deplorable that the absence of ambition and 
emulation, as well as of curiosity, should so add to our 
difficulties. I often think these children, as they 
are presented to us, might be likened to plants, ancl 
their need of consistent sympathy resembles the need 
of the plant for even temperature and constant food. 
Imagine a stunted bulb, too cold to put forth its 
roots, and lacking the stimulation it requires to make 
it grow ! We can find human plants, boys and girls 
like that: — children who do not move even to come to 
their food unless told, and who when they get there 
won't feed themselves, though they have the power to 
do so. Then there is the bulb with one long, strag- 
gling rootlet, and others only just bursting forth. We 
must restrain that rootlet, and encourage the growth 
of others. Many children I have known are interested 
and learn through one idea exclusively until put into 
a more even and levelling atmosphere. 

Again, we find certain plants with crooked, inter- 
laced roots, through which food can only be taken 
in an unnatural way. This is typical of the mind 
that anticipates danger where there is none, and is 
afraid to act or speak lest it should be wrong. The 


atmosphere here must be a gentle, unfolding one, 
persuading and giving courage. 

All our aim is to bring order from disorder, and we 
must strive for method in our own minds. We set 
out to constitute minds for many, so our method must 
be a creative one, enabling us to transmit growth to 
those who without our aid must stand still. As I have 
said before, and it cannot be said often enough, let 
our desires be limitless, but let us also be thankful 
for such results as we are allowed to see. If there 
is a striving for self-control and a desire to work 
awakened in the minds of our children, we may be 
quite sure our efforts are blessed. 

I think no body of workers are asked for such a 
high standard of self-forgetfulness as is the teacher of 
the deeply defective. She has to remember that the 
minds about her depend on her for everything, like 
a baby upon its mother for food ; that she is suggest- 
ing something all the time, and that the children are 
contented or the reverse according to her own mood. 
Joy is life to all children ; what a store we must 
minute by minute gather for them ! The children 
soon wither, both mentally and physically, - if they 
cannot constantly draw force from the teacher. The 
poor circulation in the body, and the lack of initiative 
in the mind, produce stagnation unless lively move- 
ment is continuous. 

To sum up, what must we strive for 1 To be mothers, 
and more than mothers, to these children. We must 
be able to live in the lives of others, for the children 
need a share of all we have — body, will, mind, soul and 
conscience. Therefore, let us try to cultivate and 
garner in ourselves love, sympathy, creative power, 
self-control, courage, concentration, calmness, joy, and 
contentment enough for limitless numbers, remember- 
ing the Divine Teacher who took our infirmities and 
bare our sicknesses. 




" But the sensitive plant that could give small fruit 
Of the love which it felt from the leaf to the root." 


"Take heed that ye despise not one of these little- ones." 

In this chapter I want to plead for the study of the 
individual child. No class of children, I am sure, 
show their personality more strikingly than these 
abnormal ones, the reason being probably that they 
have not been asked to mould themselves upon any 
particular pattern. I want to impress the necessity of 
an honest struggle to learn to see these children as 
they are, not as we wish them to be, or as we think 
they are likely to be. All are different, all worthy of 
our best understanding ; I can only write of a few I 
have known, by way of samples. 

To distinguish the children who have no physical 
defect, and who have little control over their impulses, 
and are as a rule well featured and even pretty, it is 
perhaps best to designate them nervous cases. These 
are the most difficult to deal with in all respects, as 
their regular growth and comeliness makes parents 
expect a favourable result, and Doctors sometimes 
hesitate to give a definite opinion to the contrary. 

I will try to describe a few such children I have 
known and loved : — 

1. — A. B., a beautiful boy of five, could speak when 
he wanted anything, but had the (to me) distressing 
tendency to repeat the question put to him instead of 
giving a reply. He knew colours perfectly, had the 
power to dress himself, interpreted most pictures, and 
knew the names of all ordinary objects he came in con- 
tact witt}. But he had no control over his impulses, 




wet his bed every, night and snatched anything he 
wanted at table. He could run and walk normally 
except for a slight nervousness in going down steps. 
His temper was violent when crossed. 

His disposition on the whole was so lovable and his 
fascination over one and all so great that we almost 
felt he was born to be a leader of the activities of 
others, but by some accident he was unable to regulate 
his own movements — in learned language he had no 
" inhibitory power " — and was ever on the move 
unless made to desist from movement. He could use 
a garden roller, saw wood, do quite simple hand-work, 
getting absorbed at looking at pictures, or construct- 
ing them from puzzles. His favourite pictures were 
those of the Blessed Virgin. When quite tiny he used 
to go to his mother's room and say, " Want the 
Marys/' and he was always well behaved in Church. 
To keep him calm and happy — not to say quiescent — 
we had to impart to him some of the restfulness of our 
own minds, as it seemed impossible for him to check 
his mobile tendency without such influence from with- 

2. — C. D., a little girl of six, seems as if she should 
have filled an important part in entertaining others. 
She can never resist trying to gain the attention and 
interest of every one she comes into contact with. She 
is most untiring and pleasing in her efforts, but is 
easily moved to laughter or to tears. She is all 
impulse, very pretty, lovable and attractive, without 
a spark of malice in her nature, but lacking the small- 
est power to retain what is said to her. The person 
who has charge of her needs to realise that to keep her 
the happy lovable soul she is intended to be, she must 
not for a moment be forgotten or disaster is the 
result. Such children require constant variety of 
attractive work, and unlike the boy, the girl chatters 
whenever possible, and one must take care that she 
keeps silent when being told to do anything. 

It is quite useless to get cross or try to coerce chil- 


dren of this type; they must be guided rather than 
taught, spoken to with a calm voice, bearing in mind 
the tumult within — the little soul full of unformulated 
things bursting for expression. These children can 
only be kept lovely with support from without; 
treated wrongly they become sulky and troublesome. 

3. — L. M., quite another character, is a child troubled 
with unhappy thoughts. She has great capacity for 
joy and sorrow, but seems to find it difficult to get 
her fill of either. Excitement of one kind or another 
she must have. She can remember vividly all that 
interests her, and will recall scenes which she has 
witnessed with great exactness. Had she been normal 
one feels she would have been clever ; she is able to 
create joy or sorrow as it were from nothing. She 
needs great love and patience to keep her well, and 
the mind of a genius to find enough variety of thought 
to distract her from distressing herself. No coercion 
is effectual with her, but in the course of training she 
has gained sufficient self-control and repose to let 
herself get fairly fat. She was an interesting, yet in 
many respects a most trying character ; there seemed 
abundance of mental material calling for develop- 
ment, yet we were always disappointed with the results 
of whatever line we tried, and had to content ourselves 
if we succeeded in producing peace by keeping a variety 
of interests alive in her, so preventing depression, into 
which she seemed to be ever inclined to sink. 

After citing these three examples from life I must 
proceed to speak of other classes not infrequently 
found in my experience. 

There are the dreamers who seem to see far away, 
but are always absent from the actualities of the pre- 
sent, as if wrapped in the clouds of imagination. When 
asked a question they invariably give a wrong answer, 
e.g., a boy who was always watching things celestial 
such as the clouds or moon, etc., was being carefully 
taught how to do an exercise by a teacher who did not 
realise the importance of controlling his wandering 



vision. When asked if he understood he looked up at 
the teacher with pretty confidence and said, " The 
moon has gone to bed " — to his mind vastly important, 
but, alas, for the lesson ! Where was it *? 

Such children seem to have in their own favourite 
direction an almost abnormal amount of involuntary 
attention. But the training of their will to self-control 
is a task requiring much thought and care. On the 
whole, however, the result is encouraging. I have 
known two children who had to be taught by years of 
patient remedial exercises to walk on their heels — their 
tendency was to run about on their toes as if from a 
desire to get up higher. This is probably due to a 
state of over-stimulation of the nerves, which affects the 
muscles spastically. These children are, as a rule, 
musical, and have what is known as the artistic tem- 
perament. When asked a question they almost always 
give three or more wrong answers before reaching the 
right one. They have an intense dislike to making 
any voluntary effort ; all messages to the brain seem 
to go wrong, and if it is possible to stare out of the 
window instead of looking at their book or the 
objects to be studied, it is always preferred." 

At the outset of training it seems necessary to 
start from the physical side so as to get our pupils 
t3 gain control over their muscles and bodily func- 
tions. I was given light upon the right beginning of 
training by reading Bishop Gore's Commentary on the 
Epistle to the Romans. His interpretation of St. 
Paul's teaching, " He that would lead others upward 
must begin from below," or as elsewhere, " First the 
natural, then the spiritual," has been constantly with 
me, for one cannot hope for true development without 

Some imaginative children are too inert or too 
dreamy to feed themselves, and would even go without 
a sufficiency of food unless constantly reminded to go 
on. At home they have, as a rule, been hand-fed by 
their mothers or nurses. They seem to live far away 


from mundane actualities, and their all-absorbing love 
for the arts and their strong imaginative powers 
make it difficult to avoid developing just one side of 
their mental development to the eternal closing of 
other and more practical capacities. Such children 
extract help or hindrance from the teacher's moods 
more than any other class, as they watch the expres- 
sion of her face, and are very sensitive to, and greatly 
influenced by, the tones of the teacher's voice. 

Turning to write of the children who are now 
generally called u Mongolian-" is like emerging into 
a calm day with a little sunshine after the storms and 
darkness we have been going through. Mongolian 
pupils may be placed on a more balanced scale of 
education. Almost all I have dealt with have been 
improvable to some extent and within certain limits. 
There are varied grades of intelligence amongst them, 
from the child whose mind seems entirely dormant, 
with a vegetating sort of body lacking in vital force. 
I remember someone remarking about one of these little 
ones, " He leaks at every outlet, you will never make 
anything stay in ! " However, we began by getting 
control of his physical organs, by teaching him not to 
dribble, by strengthening and drying up the watery 
eyes, and trying to keep the nose from running, gradu- 
ally climbing upward until we got him to attend by 
himself to what was required. 

My own experience lies mainly with the more deeply 
defective of this type. But I have found them all 
very imitative, droll in manner, and amusing in their 
ways, sociable and affectionate, yet almost always 
obstinate. Speech is often not there at all, or exists 
only to a very limited extent. I think those who are 
more active in body are generally more lacking in 
power to express themselves in words. It would seem 
as if they had only enough nervous force to control 
simultaneously either the large or the fine muscles. It 
must not be thought that individually they are as 
closely alike in mind as they are in body. Indeed, 

Bgs^y" ^*fypffill 


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' - ' & 




MONGOL. BOY (Sawing Wood), 

MONGOL BOY (Chorister), 



each one varies in character, and their differences are 
all worthy of study. 

As regards those small-headed children, called 
" microcephalic," I have found them generally active 
and observant and able to learn so far as the limited 
quantity of brain they possess allows them to do so. 
They, like the Mongolians, as a rule, conform to school 
discipline with greater facility than do children who 
are not so defective physically. One excitable child, 
with a head measuring only 17 inches in circumference, 
would often say to me when I was endeavouring to 
exact self-control from her, " Thank you for your 
remarks; they are always in season! " 

Cretins have not come into my experience. 

" For the sensitive plant has no bright flower ; 
Radiance and odour are not its dower ; 
It loves even like love, its deep heart is full." 





This chapter is upon General Training, so we begin 
with Religious leaching. Many people think this is 
quite unnecessary. I have often been told even by 
mothers that they could not teach their imbecile 
children to pray because they could not understand, 
and if such children had a place in the next world 
they would get to Heaven anyway, since they would 
not be chargeable for their sin. 

This is a creed I have never been able to follow. 1 
believe confidently that imbecile children must be 
taught to love and serve God even as our Lord Himself 
learned as a Child on earth. I am sure many of them 
understand Divine things, and have been touched with 
them in a way that we cannot realise. All their efforts 
at self-mastery and overcoming evil impulses are 
accepted as their humble service, I am certain. We 
must teach them the very best in a reverend way, giving 
all we have. 

One little lad I knew used to hold up his hands, at 
great pain and inconvenience to himself, as he 
thought if he copied Moses his prayers would be heard. 
My children have asked me curious questions like the 
following: " Why is there no God the Mother in 
Heaven 1 ? " " If the sky is the floor of Heaven what is 
the roof like 1 ? " " What do we sleep on in Heaven? ' 
" How do you get down 1 ? " etc. 

One child I knew took upon herself the daily duty 
ol repeating prayers offered by a dumb child, as she 
was afraid the silent prayers of the latter might not 
reach God. She always said her own prayers first, then 
adding, " And now Irene*s prayers. " A deaf imbecile 
boy was taught the attitude of prayer through the 
picture of our Lord in Gethsemane. He would bring 


the picture and kneel down of his own accord, never 
forgetting, always quite reverent. 

It seems helpful to try to get the children to have 
some conception of themselves as people responsible 
for saying and doing. As Tennyson puts it: — 

" The baby new to earth and sky 

What time, his tender palm is pressed 
Against the circle of the breast, 
Has never thought that this is ' I.' " 

"But as he grows and gathers much, 
And learns the use of c I ' and c me,' 
And finds I am not what I touch, 
And other than the things I see.' 5 

Imbeciles must be practically taught the use of " I " 
and " me." Until they do understand, it is impossible 
to be sure they are conscious of wrong doing. Parts 
of a little catechism for infants I have found a valu- 
able aid : — 

" When God created me He gave me five things: — 
A body to work with. 
A mind to think with. 
A soul to live with. 
A will to choose with. 
A conscience which says, 
Do what is right, 
Don't do what is wrong.' ' 
I give little talks upon these gifts each day, with 

I always let each child take its turn at u repetition/' 
whether able to speak or not; this keeps up -interest in 
the lesson, and gets one into closer touch with the in- 

Prayers collectively said should be short and 
familiar to the children, and their individual private 
prayers should be as far as possible entrusted to their 
own responsibility. Throughout the day keep in their 
minds the association of goodness with happiness, 
teaching that our Lord wishes us to be both 
good and happy. Attendance at Church is a pleasure 


to many, and young imbeciles soon learn to behave 
well there ; it seems to interest them as their own 
House of God. They may not be able to tell us much 
of what they have heard, but, after all, do many 
of us express much of our understanding of spiritual 
things i 

Moral training is so interwoven with the religious, 
it is difficult to separate the two. The teaching of 
prompt obedience is absolutely essential, and we have 
to remember that consequences of disobedience have not 
entered into the scheme of life of the untrained im- 
becile, who has probably been protected from them 
for his own safety and for the peace of mind of his 
guardian. As the root of his education we must make 
for obedience, remembering that his reason does not give 
us aid — we must do that part for the child. 

The command " come here " will probably be ignored 
for months; the plan I advise is that a game should 
be played, and the children asked to " come " again 
and again, so that the meaning of the words sink in. 
When " come " is understood, " go " must be tried. 
" Go " to the table, door, or chair, after making quite 
sure that the words are known to the child. It is 
best to make the exercise a simple one, i.e., " go to the 
door," not " go and fetch me a book." The word 
" book " would in some cases be enough to make the 
child go, and when he was desired to go without a 
definite object, he would probably refuse, and appear 
obstinate, while really being ignorant of the desire. 
The exercise should be repeated over and over again, 
each day, at first leading the child — " Come to me," 
then " Go to that table, or door." We must remember 
that the command " Come ! ' : will be obeyed before 
<( Go ! " the suggestion being stronger. 

We cannot take enough pains to make sure that our 
commands are understood. When we are sure that dis- 
obedience is wilful I have always found repeating the 
exercise a number of times curative. 

Tt is unwise to give a definite command about speech, 


as it cannot be forced, and the -teacher gets the worst 
of it! 

The command, '■ Put it down," or u Give it to me," 
are understood before " Pick it up," or " Put it on the 
table." It is easier to put a thing down than to pick 
it up, and the suggestion stronger in " Give it to me/' 
than in " Put it on the table." We must take the 
line of least resistance to begin with. Obedience really 
runs through everything. The teacher must remember 
that she must take the obedience upon herself — she 
must not give a command unless she has time to see it 
is obeyed, e.g., to say, " Put your hands down," and 
then turn away doing something else is futile — up go 
the hands again, and the same thing happens, until 
there is impatience on one side, and tears on the other. 
We must learn to be suggesting obedience all the time 
until the child's will-power is developed. 

Habits, good or bad, are so dependent upon our 
success in gaining obedience that I will take them next. 

There is only one way of eliminating a bad habit, 
and that is by replacing and crowding it out by a 
good one. It is commonly believed that imbeciles 
have a natural morbid tendency to what are known as 
" bad habits." This has not been my experience; the 
few cases we have had have been cured under Dr. 
Shuttleworth's guidance. He always tells us to keep 
the children in a wholesome atmosphere, constantly 
diverting the child's attention from his desires, striving 
to keep his mind and body so busy with other things 
that there is no room for the evil. We must be careful 
that the body is free from irritation, and that all 
clothes are quite comfortable with plenty of room 
everywhere, especially in knickerbockers, which are 
often too short in the body. 

I have spoken of irritation and discomfort for the 
body and the necessity for care, because such irritation 
is often the cause of tumult in the mind. I have seen 
children who were irritated scratch themselves quite 
severely, and unless helped all the time to keep their 


impulses in hand, by maintaining a calm atmosphere, 
they try for excitement in some way or other. To put 
% child to bed at peace with himself and the world, 
£D that he goes to sleep quickly, is of great import- 
ance. I have known children excite themselves by 
panting breaths, making lips and face blue, until 
taught these practices were wrong, and that they must 
control them. 

To form the habit of Cleanliness is the heaviest 
burden to be carried by people in charge of imbecile 
children. A really clean child is not often found among 
the untrained. The teacher must, indeed, be prepared 
to take this infirmity upon herself, and recognise that 
it needs more faith, patience and love than anything 
else. It is quite ordinary for a young child to come 
to school with the habit of emptying his bladder so 
constantly that he never seems to stop. There is 
nothing for it but the most dogged perseverance. We 
attend to such every ten minutes when they are awake. 
After each meal it is necessary to shorten the time to 
five minutes. If the teacher is keen and is determined 
to win, in about a month the time can be lengthened 
considerably. The first stage of sleep, say from seven 
to nine p.m., is the most critical time; the child should 
be attended to at the end of thirty minutes, then 
thirty minutes again, then sixty minutes. After that, 
as a rule, he will go dry till ten-thirty, then until 
two o'clock, and from that until waking, though we 
have had to attend to him between times. I have a 
little " Mongolian " of five with me now who needed 
all that help, and more. After eighteen months he is 
perfectly independent and can retain his evacuations 
for any ordinary time if well. It is making up one's 
mind to get the brain into the organs: success follows. 

Some children take several years before they will 
make their wants known, or attend to themselves. Two 
nervous boys who at six years old had no power of 
retention whatever, and soaked themselves every night, 


at twelve years old will ask or attend to themselves 
without fail. 

I am a tyrant to my staff about this, and make 
accidents a disgrace, {not to the child, until he is self- 
dependent, but to the teacher who has undertaken to 
bear his weakness) when cleanliness has been proved a 
possibility. It would be difficult to over-estimate the 
value of the mastery of this weakness. The child is 
respected, the teacher is not disgusted and troubled, 
precious time is not wasted in cleansing, and last, but 
not least, the will-power in teacher and taught is 
tremendously strengthened. 

Of course, allowance must always be made for 
illness, and the most important thing to keep the 
health good, both mental and physical, is the daily 
action of the bowels. It is a great difficulty, and needs 
judgment and patience, but it can be overcome. Some 
children so dislike effort of any kind that they never 
try, and they are often given injections daily to save 
trouble and the risk of an accident. We have never 
used them, except in illness. We try different prepara- 
tions of medicinal paraffin and the most rigid 
regularity in giving opportunity. Also we do every- 
thing we can to induce the child to try. We always 
find the repetition of small doses of medicine better 
than one large one as the process is more gradual. 
Our favourite medicines are Byno-Cascara, Byno- 
Chrysmol, and Syrup of Figs, when olive oil and 
glycerine are not enough. 

" Mongols,' ' we generally find, go to one extreme or 
the other, either having numbers of motions every day, 
or being very constipated. Cleanliness with such 
irregular cases is, indeed, a difficulty. Children who 
have many motions are always very hungry, and in- 
clined to gobble or bolt their food, which, of course, 
aggravates their condition. There is nothing for it 
but that the " Charge-keeper " should once again 
shoulder the burden, fight, and persevere, trying lime 
water, or a simple bismuth mixture, and keeping the 


children at rest for part of each day. Some people try 
small doses of castor oil; I have found this seem to 
be good, but really appropriate dieting and persuading 
the child to take his food slowly is the quickest way 
to success. 

I am very keen that imbeciles should take their 
meals in as ordinary a way as possible, and that the 
general order should be so good that it is possible for 
the staff to take their meals at the same time, making 
the children as bright and conversational as possible. 
I am sure pauses are valuable digestive aids, so the 
children are helped first, and are expected to wait for 
a second helping until the staff are ready to give it 
or pudding to them. All children who can use their 
hands can by dint of persevering patience, be taught to 
feed themselves, but they do not at all approve of 
making the effort. We have to put up with very dirty 
feeders ; in fact, I have had overalls made of thick 
Turkish towelling for tablewear. I use special spoons 
that do not need the turn of the wrist, and at first 
" Baby's plates/ 7 which are heavy, or soup plates. 
Nervous, excitable children, and those who have spastic 
jerks, are very difficult to teach to feed themselves, 
as the spoon is constantly dropped, and the cup and 
plate overthrown. Such accidents all have to be 
borne — they lead to success. 

" Mongols " are very much inclined to put the head 
down to the spoon, instead of raising the arm to the 
mouth, always a difficulty. Games and drill must be 
arranged so that the lifting of the arm is taught. Some 
children have to be taught how to get the spoon to the 
mouth. One beloved little one I spent endless trouble 
over at every meal for eighteen months. He had no 
power of imitation of action, so he had to be taught 
through words. I took his hand with the spoon in it, 
and said, " Push " (filling the spoon), then " Lift " 
(raising the arm), " Now into the mouth ' (putting 
the food in). I went on in this first stage until it 
became easy, and I could feel the arm going up of its 


own accord. I then gave the commands without touch- 
ing the child, until after a time the first command gave 
the necessary impetus, and he was able to dispense with 
any aid at all. 

Let me repeat, all children who can sit up and who 
have use in their hands can be taught to feed them- 

The worst difficulty I have had to overcome in this 
connection was a spastic jerk of the head. I thought 
at first it was a hopeless case, but I had an arrange- 
ment made to fasten to the back of the chair and go 
round the child's head. After a while she fed herself 
with the aid of her prop, and a habit of self-control 
being formed, she eventually learned to feed herself 
without aid of any kind. 

Mealtime, then, must be bright and conversational ; 
the children should be encouraged to tell what they 
have been doing, to ask people to pass what they want, 
and to learn to think of others' needs at the table before 
their ow r n. 

In connection with meal time I will just say a word 
or two about food. Proper diet is, of course, indis- 
pensable to good health. We so often fine! children 
have been allowed to choose their own food, and, as a 
rule, these children choose only one or two things, 
and refuse all others. When we begin to train the 
digestion to admit others, there is generally a digestive 
upset. The only thing is to put up with this, and to 
persevere with a variety. A boy of nine who would eat 
nothing at all but bread — no meat, vegetables or pud- 
ding — after watching other children for a time, by 
degrees got on to ordinary food. Another boy of seven 
had never taken anything but milk with a spoon and 
quite thick gravy. The muscles and nerves of the 
mouth and throat did not seem of any use, and we had 
to teach him to bite on rubber rings, making him hold 
them in his mouth to teach him not to let things slip 
down his throat. After some years of perseverance he 
got to bite and take ordinary food, 


iC Mongols " need careful watching to guard against 
fermentation of food. Green vegetables, raw fruit, or 
even much stewed fruit seldom agree with them, though 
there are exceptions. 

As an aid to digestion, I find the daily walk in the 
open air, winter or summer, very necessary. I used to 
think that imbeciles were better indoors, except in very 
good or mild weather. I have quite changed my 
opinion. I now send them out in all weathers, well 
clothed, bvsLid ask my staff to remember that active 
employment both of body and mind is the best safe- 
guard against colds. Keep up the pace, and let the 
conversation be varied, getting the children to run 
races, pretend they are airmen, trains, motorcars, etc. 
In very cold weather that very important practice of 
the really stirring march, before they go out, is most 
helpful, getting the feet warm and the spirits glowing. 
The successful teacher will be able to keep them so. 

The greatest obstacles in the path of the daily walk 
in winter are colds and chilblains. I can only say, 
" Fight." I have great faith in the theory that colds 
in the head can be overcome by an effort of will, and the 
use of some simple disinfectant like eucalyptus. It is 
amusing to hear my small boys exclaim if one of the 
staff have a cold — it is considered a disgrace. 

Suitable clothing is, of course, a great factor in the 
prevention of colds and chilblains. I think all joints 
should be well covered, and all imbecile children should 
be clothed in wool; plenty of it in winter, and the 
lightest weight possible for summer, always taking care 
there is no pressure or tightness anywhere, particularly 
in winter. Rubbing feet and hands twice a day 
certainly helps to keep away chilblains, but good 
mittens, gloves, night socks, gaiters and shoes that do 
not pinch are most necessary. 

Also, I believe that pretty and well-fitting garments 
occupy and stimulate the mind, and, therefore, prevent 
debility, to say nothing of the educational attitude they 
invoke — tidyness and carefulness, Imbeciles are not 


unlike the rest of humanity in this respect, and where 
parents cannot give pretty clothing I think the State 
should provide. It has been said that children develop 
best dressed in colours of their own choice. It seems 
natural that they should; we are all more comfortable 
if clad tastefully as we fancy. 

Our minds have been wandering in habit-land, the 
forming of good habits and thereby the casting out of 
bad. Some of these latter we have always with us. 
They invariably arise from an unemployed mind, 
therefore, the cure is to give constant food to promote 
mental action. For instance, a child who has a habit 
of rocking the body to-and-fro should, each time there 
is any sign of it, be given some exercise that needs 
voluntary effort; for head shaking or aimless turning, 
attractive objects placed at a little distance, or ball 
catching, indeed, anything that necessitates the fixing 
of the eyes. Nail-biting and flesh-picking can only be 
cured by prevention kept up for a considerable period 
— wearing gloves is the best way, the teacher keeping a 
vigilant watch that they are not taken off. The cure 
of dribbling is helped by the strengthening of the 
muscles of the lips, getting the child to blow instru- 
ments, e.g., toy trumpets, whistles, etc. ; lessening the 
size of the mouth-piece as the lips get more able to press. 
Children who dribble after babyhood as a rule droop 
the head. This is the thing to alter if possible. A 
little cushion tied just to prevent the chin getting 
down is often a help. 

The shield we must bear in the battle is the proper 
use of odd moments while waiting for meals or class or 
walk. Left unused, they are a strong evil — used with 
skill, as strong a blessing. 

One must remember the children are waiting — which 
is a trial to anyone ! And if these moments are not 
used, all the imps of nervous tricks rush in and run 
riot. The children are corrected, and, naturally, get 
into a ferment, which makes them in quite a wrong 
state of mind to begin a meal. 


We Use breathing exercises, have a beam and ladder 
for teaching grasp and balancing, and take the chil- 
dren one by one, keeping the others interested in 
watching. When one person is responsible for a 
number, singing and clapping is a good exercise, 
alternately with repetition, whether they can speak or 
not. I have two or three quite inarticulate little 
" Mongols ' who enjoy reciting very much. 

I would repeat, at the risk of boring my readers, 
that the reason for this constant aid from the teacher 
is that there is little or no material stored for the 
pupiPs mind to feed upon, so we are bound to suggest 
continually, hoping confidently that the process of 
storing is going on. Most teachers know the value of 
talking to the children, getting them to watch one do 
actions, and then imitate. I trust it will be clearly 
understood that the particular thing done is of small 
consequence, but the guiding and keeping of atten- 
tion of greatest moment — not least at get ting-up time, 
rising or rousing time ! The teacher must shoulder 
her work every morning with the intention that each 
rising time shall be more re-creative than the last. No 
sunrise is exactly the same, no flower opens its petals 
just as it did before; all young birds and animals have 
grown a little stronger, since their last waking time. 
We must strive to make the putting on and fastening 
lesson as attractive as possible, keeping the children 
alive to the fact that we are getting ready for work, 
remembering that the souls and bodies we deal with 
are always very young ; we never know what a new 
attitude or circumstance may produce in the way of 

In trying to teach children to dress themselves, I 
have found stockings managed best put on from the 
top. Shirts, vests, jerseys, petticoats, if found difficult, 
can be mastered by putting them face downward on the 
bed, letting the child stand by, and put his or her 
liead in, then draw it over, and the rest is easier. 
Combinations, stockings, knickers, or drawers are 

General training. 29 

managed best sitting on the bed or floor. I always 
put a fair-sized button to combinations or shirts, just 
enlarging the button-hole a little. It is too dishearten- 
ing to try the poor little fingers with very small 
buttons. When small boys begin to button braces, it 
is important that the back buttons should be left 
undone, so that no pulling is needed. This example 
would apply to everything the untaught imbecile learns 
— never give him two things that he cannot do at once, 
let him button first — when that is really mastered the 
pulling will come. 

Cleaning their own teeth is a great delight to the 
children. Of course, it has <to be supervised and 
supplemented, but the practice is good. Washstands 
should be of a convenient height, so that the children 
may wash themselves comfortably. In preparation for 
the day's work I think this following little summary 
of the secret of success is helpful to the teacher. 

Resolve firmly, expect confidently, desire earnestly, 
also trifles make perfection, but perfection is no 

We have also many odd moments at — 

Going-to bed-time, Getting ready for restoration. I 
looked up the word " restore " in a dictionary before 
writing this, and found it meant " To bring back to a 
former state, to heal, to rebuild, to give back, to 
replace." Now we work on the supposition that the 
little ones we are trying to teach are born without 
capacity, so that bringing back to a former state may 
seem irrelevant. / think not. All have a God-given 
soul with the possibility of perfection ; the struggle to 
overcome difficulties will certainly add to the lifting 
of the present cloud. 

In preparing the children for rest so that the " re- 
storing" process may go on unhindered, peace should 
be our watchword, and our attention should be fixed 
on the word " restoration " and the children kept 
calmly happy and interested with pleasant " recollec- 
tion " of the day's happenings. I think our ideals 


could be helped by bringing to mind the evenings we 
have particularly noticed and been restored by. The 
gradual sinking of the sun to rest — the folding of the 
flowers, the faint " good-night " of the birds, lastly, 
the rising of the moon. 

Now, to be practical, we must not expect the chil- 
dren to be as apt to learn then as they are at other 
times, but the bath is, as a rule, a great incentive to 
quick undressing. The desire to be first is with these 
children, and is a great help. The folding of the 
clothes and putting them ready for morning will help 
our idea that sleep is to make us strong for next 
day's work and service. Prayers should include this 
request. If the children are allowed to sing sometimes 
they enjoy it very much. 

We often have children come to us who are very 
sleepless; they soon sleep well — a fully occupied day 
brings rest. 



In this chapter I am suggesting stages of progress 
and ways of using the apparatus named. It has been 
proved that the lowest grade imbecile can profit by 
these exercises. 

The suggestions for use of the special apparatus are 
intended as outlines only. Each teacher must create 
a method for herself in accordance with the needs of the 
individual — to some through sight, others hearing, 
others through touch alone at first. 

It is best to divide the children into sections. Those 
who learn by Sight and Sound naturally, and those 
who do not. 

Simple tests like the following might be used with 
advantage : — 

1. Obey a command, e.g.,, " Come here." 

2. Recognise anything in a picture. 

3. Discriminate between strangers and people 


4. Respond to name. 

5. Imitate action. 

6. Imitate sound. 

7. Follow with the eyes an object moved about. 

8. Turn head in direction of sound. 

9. Fetch article when told, choosing it from 

For more advanced children add: — 

1. Point to eyes, nose, mouth. 

2. Hold up hand. 

3. Tell own name. 

4. Point to objects in picture. 


5. Fetch what he is told. 

6. Obey commands— " Sit down!" " Come here!" 

" Go to door! " etc. 

7. Recognise two things, give two things when told. 

8. Know a penny, or any coin. 

If this is passed the child would soon pass through 
the Stages 1 and 2 and do the work of Stage 3. 

The children who do not imitate, and who are not 
interested in looking, must be taught through touch 
alone at first. They will often build bricks, thread 
beads, use insets, and do simple sewing quite well. 
After persistent efforts they get quite interested, but 
until they are, the attitude of the teacher's mind must 
bs quite different, as with the children who can imitate 
she has only to make use of powers already developed, 
while with the uninterested class she must arouse in 
the children an interest in things apart from them- 

Imbecile children often do not understand the mean- 
ing of any words. In almost all cases where the be- 
ginnings have to be made, the understanding is very 
limited, but by entering into the spirit of the play and 
making it joy by constant changes of action and tone 
of voice, meaning is imparted to the words and can 
be made use of in further steps. 

All the actions will have to be done for the child, to 
begin with, but he will soon pick them up. 

A first lesson with stands and kings would be some- 
thing like this: — 

"Look at me!" (Draw the child into touch with 

" Look at this ring ! Look ! It is coming to Mary ! !" 
(Bring it down rather quickly on the child's hand.) 
" Look again ! !" " It is going up, up, up !" 

(Raise the ring quickly.) 
" Look I It is coming down, down, down ! And— 



going on to the post ! Mary hold the post !" (Put her 
hands on.) 

" Now, look ! Here it comes ! On it goes ! There 
it is ! ! 

"Look! It is on the stand. Shake it! What a 
noise it makes ! " 

" Now another nice ring. Look at me; I am going 
to spin it ! 

" Now it is on the floor ! Pick it up, Here it is ! 
Lift it up ! It is coming, coming, on to Mary's hand. 
Now it's on Mary's fingers. Take it off ! Clever girl ! 
Give it to me. 

Now Mary have it. Pick it up ! Bring it down on 
to the post. 

Shake them ! Oh ! It has come off ! Look ! There 
it is ! Pick it up ! Put it on again." 

" Now another. It wants to run away ! ! ! Look at 
me ! I've got it ! Mary hold her hands ! It's coming ! 
Look!! Where is it? Under Mary's pianofore ! ! : 
Find it ! Pick it up, and put it on ! " 

"Look at me, and listen ! Where's that pussy? 
Mew, Mew ! " (Now have ring for a pussy.) 

" Take it ! Pick it up ! Put it on ! " 

" Look again ! ! Look at me ! I'm going to put it 
on my finger this time ! Mary take it off ! ! Now put 
it on the post." 

" Look at me ! I'm going to take one off. A little 
bird wants to fly up, up, up ! Lift the ring ! Now, it 
is going on to the table. Mary put it down. Pick it 
up ! " 

" Now this one is crying for its Mother ! Look ! 
It's going to fly, too ! ! Mary help it ! Pick it up ! 
Look, off it comes ! !" 

"Another little bird wants to fly!! Mary help it 
again ! Pick it up. Lift it off ! Put it down ! ' 

" Still another ! Listen ! It's crying for its 
Mummy ! Lift it off ! Put it down ! " 


" Now these birds are going to spin. Look ! There 
they go ! ! " 

" Another wants to come off. Mary get it. Pick it 
up! Lift it. off! Put it down! " {In a whisper) — 
" Only one left ! Mary get it ! No ! I will ! ! Ah ! ! 
Mary has it ! " 

" Now we'll put them all on ! Hush ! ! Look, there 
they are ! " 

" They are on ! ! They are going to sleep ! ! ! ' 

The following gradations of " Simple Beginnings ' : 
in training may be suggestive, the italicised headings 
indicating the appliances used, and the subsequent 
lines their value in the scheme of instruction. 

Stage I. 
Stands and Bings. 

To arrest the attention through sound. 
To train the hands. 

To teach the meaning of the commands : — 
" Pick it up." 
" Put it on." 
" Take it off." 
" Put it down." 

Ball Placing and Dropping. 

To keep the attention. 

To arouse interest, by pacing a ball in each 

To further train the hands. 

To teach the meaning of the commands: — 

" Put it in." 

" Take it out," 

" Drop it through." 




Tablet Threading. 

Introduction to beads. 

To get continuous attention. 

To teach the meaning of the commands: — 

" Pick it up." 

" Put it in." 

"Pull it through:' 

" Push it down." 

Beginning of appreciation of colour by 
"Dark," "Light." 

Bead Threading (in two colours only). 

The same as " Tablet Threading." 

Use of Montessori Apparatus. 

The value of this apparatus is best explained 
by Madame Montessori herself in her books. 
Solid Insets. 
Pink Tower. 
Broad Stair. 

Large Pictures of familiar objects. 

Simple Physical Exercises. 

Apparatus: — Poles, Hoops, Mat for each 
child to ensure the place being kept. 

To teach the meaning of the words: — 
" Up, Down, In, Out, Over" 

Marching in Line. 

Sand Work. 

To train the hands. 

To teach the meaning of the words: - 

u In, Out, Up, Down." 
To teach names of objects used. 
To accustom the children to the use of the 

sand and implements in preparation for 

Stage 2. 


Stage II. 
Physical Exercises. 
The same as Stage 1, but expect time to be 
Beads and Bamboo Threading. 

To teach difference of form. 
Beads of Different Sizes. 

To teach large and small. 

Beads of Three or more Colours. 

- To teach colour. 

Cardboard Rings for Ball Making. 

To teach meaning of words: — 
Pull it through" 


u Put it round. 


Apparatus — Wooden Blocks with holes. 
To get more continuous attention. 
To teach meaning of words : — 
" Pick it up." " The next hole." 
11 Pull it through." " Turn it over." 
N.B. — An advance on this is Rug Canvas fixed on to 
small slate frames. Use the same process. 

Montessori Apparatus. 

Solid Insets. 

Metal Insets for placing and drawing. 

The Broad and Long Stair. 

Boards for teaching " Bough ' and 

" Smooth." 
Sound Cylinders. 
Building Lessons with Wooden Bricks. 

Blackboards and Easels. 

Drawing Strokes. 

To teach direction — " Up, Down, Across," 

Pictures of Animals. 



Pictures of Common Objects and of Implements Used 
in Housework and Gardening. 

To teach the names of Objects and get the 
children to fetch them after looking at the 
To teach the meaning of words through the 
actions, viz. : — 

" Stand up." 

" Come here." 

" Fetch me " — an egg, etc. 

" Give it to me" 

11 Go back." 

11 Sit down." 

Bags of Sand of Different Weights in Covers of 
Primary Colours. 

To teach colour; numbers 1, 2, 3; ''heavy " 
and " light." 

Buttoning and Lacing on Frames and on Waistcoats 
made in different colours ; one child allowed to 
button garment on another. 

Tunnel and Train. 

To teach meaning of word " Under " and 
names of objects used. 

N.B. — The step next to this would be weaving. 

Sand Work. 

To train hands. 
To teach meaning of words, 
" In, Out, Up, Down." 
In this stage something definite should be taught, 


Stage III. . 

Physical Exercises. 

Better work must be confidently expected. Dumb- 
bell and flag drill may be begun. The teacher must 
realise that the hands being separated the will power 


required to enable the children to do the exercises 
correctly is on a more advanced scale. 

Bead and Bamboo Threading. 

This must advance. Two beads and two bamboos 
might be used ; then if this is easily learned, the much 
more difficult " two and one " may be tried, and a 
steady advance expected. The same applies when 
threading beads for the teaching of colour, two red 
and two green; then two red and one green, advancing 
as each step is mastered. 

Ball Making. 

For the cardboard rings in Stage 2, substitute balls 
made of cloth, or wound from ravellings, quartered 
with string, and worked after the manner of " spider- 
webs " by the children. This occupation illustrates well 
the words — " under and over." 


Substitute Babies' Brown Sewing Cards for Wooden 
Blocks, and expect them to be kept whole, and perfectly 
done. The commands will now be unnecessary. The 
Darning Stitch on the rug canvas must be practised 
alone, and other stitches taught, such as Cross-stitch, 
and stitches which necessitate going over two or more 

Two colours of wool should be used, and very distinct 
patterns made, thus training the eye, and interesting 
the worker in her own creation. 

Montessori Apparatus. 

The same as in Stage 2, adding apparatus for 
Number-learning, Wooden Flat Insets, Box of Fabrics 
for training Touch. 

W'eight-testing Apparatus. 

Sandpaper Letters. 

Colour-boxes for learning Shades. 

All frames for Buttoning, Lacing, etc. 

v7 f~\ w. r v-7 rs (l^ ^r fF) 

OU Ijr t/Uu'o 


o, r 1 y 



TlO ZQ l r Yb[j[L r ^[jJX r UQ i 




Small Weaving Frames should be used in place of 
the Tunnel and Train for making fast the meaning of 
the words — " under " and " over." 

Blackboard and Easel. 

The directions " up," " down," " across," have been 
learned in Stage 2 • something definite must now be 

Forming a round " O " is the next step : then the 
old-fashioned pot hook (A) illustrating the words — 
" up, round, down." Add stroke and call it " r " as 
soon as learned, so that there may be nothing to un- 
learn. Now, (B), another old friend, (the words in 
this case being, " down, round, up." When the child 
can copy " O " and the two following forms (A) and 
(B), without the directions being given, call the 
"hanger" " i," add the dot, and practise until all 
three can be produced by dictation. 

Then, take the combined form (C), using the 
words, "up, round, down, round, and up." When 
perfect, add the little mark, and call it "v." All 
other letters can be formed from these, except the 
loop letters, which should be taught separately, thus : 
The upward loop (D), " up," a Utile way round 
and straight " down." The downward loop (E), 
" down, a little way round and straight up," calling 
the first two by their names " f " and " j." When all 
these forms can be made from copy and dictation, the 
sight impression will be sufficiently developed to enable 
the learner to manage without such definite word 
directions, and new letters may be taught as the child 
is ready for them. 

Writing in Copy Books must begin when the letters 
are learned. Phillips' plain ones, No. 1, are the best, 
so that the copy may be given in accordance with the 
progress of the child. Pencil must be used at first. 

When we are able to insist upon a copy of different 


letters being correctly done without supervision, we 
know we shall advance satisfactorily. 

N.B. — It must be understood that these are sugges- 
tions only, and the manner of teaching must be adapted 
to the greatly varying ability of the individual : He 
may copy easily, while years of patient teaching can- 
not get anything done by him from dictation, whereas 
She will remember directions and connect them, and 
produce a decent " r " when told, but the same years 
of patience will not get her to see clearly enough to 
copy unaided. 

Method of forming letters from roots given above, 
i.e., shown in lower line of chart, the root form being 
indicated by thicker lines, and the additions to form 
letters by fainter ones. 

Pictures of Animals, Etc., 

Should be shown in greater variety, and more learned 
about the animals' habits. Also Pictures of people in 
daily life should be shown. 

Objects should be recognised from a picture and 
copied by the children in plasticine, which will neces- 
sitate words in greater number than it is possible for 
me to write here. A great point to be made is, that 
the children understand the use of all objects with 
which they come in contact. 


The beginning of Reading in the learning of letters 
should be tried, both as an exercise for the memory 
and also as a valuable help in speech teaching. The 
two-letter words on big sheets may be added when the 
letters are mastered. 

It is well to remember that the variety of pictures 
and letters can scarcely be great enough in this lesson : 
both for objects, animals, and letters there is a tendency 
in some minds only to know a thing in one colour and 


size, unless kept supplied with different presentations 
from the first. 


Easy Recitations should be added, preferably the 
Nursery Rhymes, and acted as well as spoken : " Jack 
and Jill," w Mary had a little Lamb," " Tom, Tom, 
the Piper's Son," " Little Jack Horner," etc., are 
splendid for dramatic purposes. 

Absence of speech should be no disqualification : chil- 
dren who cannot articulate often enter into and under- 
stand the spirit of a play best : they listen instead of 
repeating mechanically. 

Ca rdhoard Coins. 
May be used to get the children to know the metals 
and the different coins. Real coins are preferable. 


- Up to u 6 " should, if possible, be taught by means 
of objects (beads, coins, etc.). 

May be used to illustrate any lesson, e.g., " Jack and 
Jill," " Little Bo-Peep," etc. 


Plain drawing books of cartridge paper are best, 

both for the Montessori apparatus and for encouraging 

the children to draw anything and everything they 

see: A little book published by Charles and Dible, 

' Drawing for Tinies " is most helpfully suggestive. 

Stage IV. 
Physical Exercises. 
There should be an advance in excellence of action. 
Balancing exercises to music can be added, and 
emphasis laid on right and left. 

There should be advance in carrying out the work 
taught in Stage 3, and Rug-making, Knitting, 

Massachusetts Sche 
for Feeble Mind 


Macrame, Basket-making, Raffia-work, and different 
stitches in embroidery should be added. Indeed, any 
variety of work for hand-training may be taught. 

Bead Threading. 

Children all love beads, and they are good as an aid 
to colour teaching. They may also be given, to make 
bracelets and necklaces as a reward for other work 
well done, or to keep some of the children occupied 
while others are taught a new step. 

Montessori Apparatus. 

All the apparatus might be used in this stage, to 
secure the apprehension of size, weight, length, shades 
in colour, and differences in form, by drawing and 
other means. 

The frames would be used for any child who had not 
mastered buttoning, tying, etc., but this is intended 
to be mastered in Stage 3. 


The children have learned their letters in Stage 3. 
The next step is the spelling of the two-letter words. 
They have learned to read them, so are familiar with 
the words by sound. In connection with this the 
sounds of the letters should be given. Make the vowels 
well known by going over them on the fingers : begin 
with the thumb — A. E. I. O. U; then teach the rest of 
the letters in this way : — 

Write " h " on the board, and ask for the name of 
the letter: say, " The name is ' bee.' Now, listen for 
the sound, and make it! — ' ber.' " 

This is a popular exercise, and easily learnt and 
remembered. The children should be taught where the 
different sounds come from, e.g., " g " and " k ,; ' are 
throat sounds. 

In further spelling a good plan is to begin by putting 
a syllable on the board, and make the children suggest 
the initial consonant, e.g., " at — how shall I make this 


' mat * V\ or, " I want to write ( mat/ what letter must 
I use 1 ?' From this stage they proceed to ordinary 


Three-letter words are put before the children, and 
sentences have to be studied. The Reading lesson is of 
manifold value: It helps speech and memory; it pre- 
sents an opportunity for teaching the meaning of 
words and sentences; and also the imagination may be 
developed. Even if the children should never get far 
with reading, the channel is not closed to them. 
When they see printed words they realise what they 

One way of giving a lesson to a class on the following 
words would be to have this apparatus: — 

(a) Reading Sheet showing a picture of a boy and 

girl going towards a well, with the girl hold- 
ing a cup with a red rim, and a handkerchief, 
the boy pointing to the well, by the side of 
which is a tub. 

(b) A jug of water. 

(c) A cup with a red rim. 

(d) A hand-mirror and duster. 

(e) A small tub made heavy. 

Reading Sentences : -*- 

(1) This is my cup. 

(2) The rim is red. 

(3) My cup is wet. 

(4) Rub the rim. 

(5) It is dim yet. 

(6) That is a tub. 

(7) It is at the well. 

(8) Is the tub full 1 No, not yet. 

(9) Can a man pull it up full ? 

(10) Yes, it is not too big to pull up full. 

Let the children read the words, learning them by 
sight, and making use of their knowledge of the con- 


sonant sounds. Then let them act in turns, and try 
to copy the position of the children in the picture. 
Question in this way upon the sentences: — 

(1) " Whose cup is it? " 

(Make sure that each child realises what " My 
cup " means through their own possessions.) 

(2) " Show me the rim. What colour is it? " 

(3) Let the children make the cup wet, and ask, 

" What made the cup wet? " 

(4) Let them rub the rim. 

(5) Let the children breathe on a looking-glass, and 

make them understand " Dim " and the word 
" Yet " by asking them to look in the glass 
before it is rubbed bright. 

(6) Let the children compare the tub with the one 

in the picture, and try to get the use of the 
word " that " by saying " Which is the tub? " 
and getting them to point, and say " That is." 

(7) Build a well with big bricks, or make one, or 

have pictures for comparison. Get the chil- 
dren to place the tub near the well you con- 

(8) Let the children fill the cup with water from the 

jug, and sometimes stop them when it is half 
full asking, " Is the cup full? " and get them 
to answer, " No, not yet," until it is seen that 
the words " Full " and " Not yet " are under- 

(9) Let the children pull up the heavy tub, making 

sure the words " Pull " and " Full" are 
thoroughly understood. 
(10) Again, the children should be allowed to pull 
up the tub, and made to answer to the question, 
" Can a man pull it up full? ' " Yes, it is not 
too big." Compare with something they cannot 
lift. By experience this has been found neces- 

Imbecile children rarely understand the use of the 

pronouns without being taught. 



This should now be taken with a view to teaching 
something in an interesting way about natural things, 
i.e., the sun, the moon, rain, birds, flowers; as well as 
an aid to speech and memory training. 

The days of the week, and the months, should be 
daily spoken about, and the children helped to reason 
about " to-day," " yesterday," " to-morrow " " next 
tueek," etc., as this helps to a realisation of " past," 
" present " and " future." 


Some imbeciles never reach even a small understand- 
ing of the time. 

There are Clock-blocks, and puzzles, to be had, with 
the hand at various times, which help, but the way I 
advocate is to let it come gradually by putting the 
hands to the successive hours, e.g., " What do you do at 
7 in the morning?" " Get up and dress." "And 
what at 8.1 " " Have breakfast " ; and so on until the 
hours are known, and morning and afternoon realised. 
Then the half-hours and quarters may be illustrated by 
a penny clock face, or a home-made one, cut in halves 
and quarters, and the children got to piece them to- 
gether as you teach. The minutes will come if the 
halves and quarters are mastered. 


Numbers up to ten must be tried for. One of the 
best aids to the understanding of number is to give out 
counters and ask for different numbers to be picked up 
and given to the teacher. No one would realise or 
believe the difficulty this presents, as it means self- 
given attention. If it flags the number is wrong. 
" The a. b.c. of Arithmetic " is very helpful, but there 
are many devices that can be adopted, such as drawing 
squares, triangles, etc., and making the children realise 
the number of lines used. Number is a thing that can 


be taught by degrees through allowing it a little share 
in every lesson given. 

If the children pass successfully through these four 
stages, they should be ready for more ordinary class 
work, and be passed to classes on a more progressive 

For both teacher and taught to get the full value 
from these stages, this truth must be hugged to our 
breasts : — 

Joy must be the guiding spirit; rising with us, abid- 
ing with us, and resting through the night close by 
our side. 

Resolve firmly. 
Expect confidently . 
Desire earnestly. 



The following lessons are intended for children who 
have passed through the first two stages, and should be 
given once or twice a week. 

My aim in writing them is to help teachers to pre- 
pare their children to be useful in the general work of 
a colony immediately they leave the class-room, for 
unless they are definitely and practically taught that a 
brush is a brush, and a cloth a cloth, they are turned 
back by the industrial trainer as hopeless. 

Those who are interested in the industries actually 
carried on at a colony may refer with advantage to the 
excellent Handbook for Teachers entitled, " Industries 
for the Feeble-Minded and Imbecile," by Mr. A. Bick- 
more, Craftmaster at Darenth, (published by Adlards, 
London) in which are set forth a variety of more or 
less remunerative occupations practised under his 
skilful direction. My own observations are, however, 
limited to very " simple beginnings " in the industrial 
training of young children. 

Again, I would lay stress upon the fact that every- 
thing I have written is offered as a suggestion only. 
Each teacher must make her method for herself, and 
vary it each time she gives a lesson. 

I think the acts of sweeping, bed-making, floor-polish- 
ing, and all housework, are best learned in a room 
set aside for the purpose. This method was in practice 
at the Royal Albert Institution thirty years ago, 
where by the kindness of Dr. Shuttleworth I had the 
privilege of beginning my learning-time in this work. 
This suggestion would also apply to gardening proper. 
We can teach all the beginnings through the lessons 


with sand and clay — sowing seeds, planting, digging, 
marking off with stones vegetable and flower gardens, 
watering, etc. — so that when the children go into the 
garden to work, all implements will be familiar to 
them, and weeding and leaf-sweeping will be easily 

In connection with the sand lesson, a good begin- 
ning may be made in teaching the care of animals. 
Little pens for hens, cows, pigs, etc., may be built, and 
toy animals put into them ; also specimens of the right 
kind of food shown. 

Boot Cleaning. 

Apparatus. — Clean Boots and Shoes — Dirty Boots and 
Shoes — Soles and Uppers (separate) — Boot Brushes 
— Dusters and Polishers — Lacing and Buttoning 
Frames — Polish — Wooden Knife. 

Begin by getting the children to thoroughly knotv 
their materials, teaching carefully the parts of the boot 
or shoe. It is quite necessary to have both boots and 
shoes and slippers, so that the children may learn the 
different names, which will serve as a preparation for 
boot-making afterwards. 

Show a clean boot — ask what it is — then a shoe. 
Press the difference, i.e., the boot comes up the leg, 
keeping it clean and warm. 

k * When do we wear ooots ? 

" To go out." 

" Yes ! And some people wear shoes. Slippers we 
put on when we are in the house." 

Show them, asking the name of each one — 

"What is this? >' " A boot." 

"Yes ! What is it for? " " To put on when we go 

" Yes, but we don't go out with one boot on do we? ' 
." No." 

" How many do we want? " " Two." 

" Yes. ' A pair.' ' A pair ' means two ! A pair of 


boots, or. a pair of gloves. We should get one foot wet 
and perhaps cut it on stones if we went out with no- 
thing on it, so we must have a pair, two, because we 
have two feet. Now fetch me one boot ! Yes ; now a 
pair. One boot is for the right foot, one for the left; 
the little arch comes inside the foot. Now bring me a 
pair of shoes. What ! odd ones ! ! I have a shoe for 
the right foot in my hand, bring me the left one, 
please ! " 

(It would be very necessary to work for some time at 
this, as it is important that boot cleaners should under- 
stand pairing). 

" Now fetch me a clean boot — now a dirty one. Look ! 
How dirty this is ! Where did you walk ? In a muddy 
road 1 Now what can we do to make this boot look as 
nice as this clean one? " 

" Clean it! " 

" Yes ! That's it ! We must clean all dirty things." 

' Before you begin to clean it, you must know a little 
about it. Look ! Here are some parts of a shoe : 
Here is the upper part, the part that goes on the top of 
your foot. It is called the Upper. And here is the 
Sole, the part you walk on. Now show me which part 
of your foot the sole goes on ! Now which part the 
upper ! Now someone fetch me the shoe ; now the 
upper ! Yes ! Can anyone tell me what the part that 
goes between these holes is called? " 

" The tongue." 

1 Yes. Are there any other tongues in the room 1 
Oh ! Yes ! I see them ! Now who will show me the 
other kind of tongue ? This piece of leather must be 
called a tongue because it is the same shape. Now 
these holes ! What do we put through them 1 ? " 

" The lace." 

" Yes ! We put the lace through. They are called 

' eyelet holes.' Show me the sole! What is it for? " 

'To walk on." " Yes ! Now the upper! Now the 

tongue ! Now the eyelet holes ! Yes, you know them 

all quite well ! Let us pick out clean and dirty boots !" 


4 t 

Watch while I show yon how to get the dirt off ! 
Look ! This way ; brush it off, and scrape with a knife. 
See ! All the dirt is gone ! Now yon try ! " 

" What is this? " " Polish! " 

" Yes ! Now look, we put a little on, then take 
brush and brush it all over the boot. Is yours ready 
for the polish ? Not quite, all the dirt must be brushed 

" We have put the polish on, but look, it is not bright 
and shiny like this one ! It is quite dull, like a cloudy 
day ! I want it to shine like the sun ! We will take 
this brush, called a polishing brush, and brush it 
lightly but quickly all over. Now look ! It is coming 
so bright. Can you see yourself in it? " 

" Now rub with a duster ! Yes, it is finished now. 

" This is the way we must work: We have sorted all 
the dirty and clean boots, so Frank brush off the dirt, 
James put on the polish, Mary polish with the brush, 
and Pat polish with the duster. Each boot must have 
five things done to it: — (l) Dirt brushed off. (2) 
Polish put on. (3) Polish spread with a brush. (4) 
Shined with a brush. (5) Shined with a duster. When 
all that is done, we put them in pairs, right boots, left 
boots, all of the same size, in a nice row. Look how 
nice ! Then put them away ! " 

Knife Cleaning. 

The value of this lesson consists, firstly, in getting 
the children to know well the apparatus they need for 
their work, i.e. : — 

Knives, clean and dirty. 

Knife Box. 

Bowl for washing knives. 

Cloths for drying knives. 

Knife Boards. 


Duster for polishing. 



Each article should be taken separately in this way, 
until well-known by the class: — 

" What is this? " A bowl." 

" Fetch the bowl for me, please." (Put it in a 
different place.) 

" Now tell, or show me, where the bowl is. {Show 
should be for children who cannot speak). 

" What is the bowl for? " Etc., etc. 

Then proceed with the lesson. The following are 
suggestions only. Each Teacher would soon make a 
variety of methods for herself. 

" Look at this knife. What is it for? " 

" To cut bread." 

" Yes; to cut bread." " Look at this one." 

" Will you cut bread with it ? " 

" No." 

" Why not," 

" Too dirty." 

"Yes. Isn't it? What can we do to clean it? " 

" Wash it." 

11 Let us try. Now wash it then dry it." 

" Look it is not clean yet. What can we do ? " 

" Rub it." 

" Yes, rub it. Is it clean now? " 

" No." 

" Now look at this knife again. Show me how you 
would hold it." (Most children know this.) " Yes, 
that's right, you put your hand on the handle. Now 
let us see who can hold the handle very tight ! " 

Distribute clean and dirty knives. 

" Everyone must show me clean knives. Now all the 
dirty ones. Everyone show me the handle." " Now 
the part that cuts — the blade." " Everyone say 
' blade/ " " What is the blade for? " " Yes; to cut 
with." Now look at this blade with no handle! You 
cannot do anything with it because there is no handle 


If you hold the blade very tight what will it do to 
your hand ? " 

" Cut it." " Yes, and make it bleed, and then we 
must tie it up. Now, who will put the handle and the 
blade together? Yes! That's the way." 

" Now, show me the bright knives, and the dull 
dirty knives; which do you like best? " 

" Clean ones." 

"Yes! Take a duster and rub the dirty ones! ' 
Are they clean now? " 


" Well, we must try a different way." 

" Look ! Here is a board. I am going to put one 

" Take the dirty knife and rub it on the board, like 
this : Look ! Backwards — forwards — slowly — quickly. 
Look ! is it clean ? " 

" No ! dirty marks are still there. Oh ! dear ! now 
look at this tin of brick-dust. See, ! There are little 
holes to let it come through. Shake it on to the board ! 
Now take that dirty knife and rub it on the powder 
on the board, quickly — now slowly — forward — back- 
ward. Now look if it is clean. Yes ! all the marks are 
gone. Now take the duster and dust the knife ; rub the 
blade well. Look how bright it is ! Now, put it in 
the box. We can use it to cut bread." 

" Try, here is a bun ! You can cut it. &ee, it does 
not dirty the bun. Now, all rub your knife again, 
and put it away in the box." 

The lesson should be given until the children can 
proceed correctly without direction. Some will be 
slower than others. The quick children should give the 
lesson for the benefit of the slow. 

Note 1. — My knife-boards were made by feeble- 
minded boys, and emery-cloths used for cleaning the 
knives. The boards cost me 2^d. each. 

Note 2. — I think it may be wise to draw attention to 


the absence of any attempt to teach anything but the 
ordinary name of the things used. 

It is done with a purpose ; so that all the force we 
have may be centred upon the work we have to do, and 
not scattered in trying to remember the blade of the 
knife is steel, and the handle ivory or bone; water is 
liquid ; and the cloths linen or cotton. 

In my experience, many a lesson has entirely failed 
through well-meant efforts to teach everything there is 
to learn about the materials, thereby causing confusion 
iu the delicate mind of the class. 

This hint would apply to the set of industrial lessons 
I propose to plan for imbecile children to learn in 


For Stage 3. 

To teach the threading of the needle, and by easy 
stages the different stitches — hemming, seaming, and 
tacking or running. 

Apparatus. — Wire, small curtain rings, tablets for 
Round and flat wooden needles. 
Cobbler's wax and thread. 

Loose piece of scarlet bunting and very loosely woven 
hessian, and also some hems prepared by turning a one- 
inch hem of scarlet bunting on to the hessian. Seams 
prepared in the same way, one side scarlet the other 

Some soft cotton material, preferably striped, for 
running and backstitch. 

Wool needles with large eyes. 

Picture of child sewing. 

Step I.— Thread the Needle. 

Give out small curtain rings and short lengths of 

wire, and say : "I want you to put the wire through 

the ring. Hold up the wire in your right hand, the 

ring in your left hand. Now, look at the ring, and 


put the wire through. Yes, that is right ! Now take 
one of the tablets, hold it up in your left hand, the 
wire in your right ! Now, thread the tablet ! Look ! 
Here is a funny wooden needle " — (give some to the 
class). " Hold it up, and see if you can find a hole 
in it ! Show me the hole ! Now show me your eyes ! 
Yes ! Well, the little black spot in the middle of your 
eye is a hole really, so we call the hole in the needle its 
eye ! ! Isn't it funny 1 Now take your needles, and 
find the eye. I want you to take your wire, and put- 
it through the eye of the needle. Yes ! that is right 
Now show me the eye again ! Now show me the point 
of your needle ! The eye holds the thread for you to 
sew with; the point you push into the stuff." (The 
children have been using needles so they ought to know 

11 Pick up your needles in your right hand ! I am 
going to give you some pieces of red bunting. Show 
me how you would sew ! Yes, you have put the 
needles in, but there are no stitches, are there 1 

(Show a piece of canvas with stitches in different 

u Look, here are some stitches on this, and here is a 
needle. Tell me what made the stitches 1 ' 

" Thread or wool." 

" Yes ! Now we must give your needles something 
to make stitches." (Substitute large wool needles for 
wooden ones.) 

" Take your needles up in your left hands. Here is 
thread with a black end," (waxed thread). " Try to 
thread your needle; put the thread through the eye 

11 Here are pieces of bunting; let me see you sew; 
make stitches ! " 

The children should be allowed to sew at will, being 
directed to put in the needle, and pull it through with 
the right hand. With some children this is a natural 
instinct, with others lesson upon lesson must be given 
before it is accomplished. 

Let the children go on sewing freely on rough pieces 



of material until putting in the needle and pulling 
through with the right hand is easy. During the process 
needles with smaller eyes should take the place of the 
wool needles — carpet needles to begin with, gradually 
lessening the size as the children progress. 

The thimble might be tried as soon as the children 
appear ready for it. 

Step 2.— The Hem. 

Draw the attention of the class to raw edges, and 
show that in hessian or bunting all the threads would 
come out, and if we wanted a duster or a handker- 
chief, we could not have a nice one without a hem. We 
cover up and keep fast the edge so that the threads can- 
not run away. 

Illustrate by letting one child stand in the middle 
and several children ' hem him in.' Then show hems on 
duster and handkerchief, and coats or frocks, after- 
wards the prepared hems. Show these carefully, asking 
the children to point out the brown middle, and the red 
hem. Let them see a picture of a child hemming. Then 
give the children the hems, and say: — 

"Look at those stitches! They are tacking stitches, 
to hold the hem down." 

Give to each child a needle with no thread. Show 
how to hold the hem, but do not expect anything 
exact. Then say : — 

" Put your needle into the brown, then into the red 
every time ! We want to hold down the red hem, so 
that the threads cannot get out." 

When it is understood that both the brown and red 
must be attacked by the needle every time, let the 
needles be threaded, and teach: — 

(1) " Put your needle into the brown." 

(2) "Now up through the red hem." 

u Down into the brown square, now up into the red 
hem," and so on, until they do it without direction. 
At the first putting in of the needle, the children 


must be taught to be careful not to pull the end of the 
thread through their material but to tuck it under the 
hem towards the left hand and sew over it. 

As soon as " hemming " is understood, the material, 
needles, and cotton must gradually get more and more 
difficult. Flannelette does very well, in two colours, 
as the next step to bunting, then casement cloth, then 
ordinary dusters in one colour. 

If the children find great difficulty in holding the 
work, pieces of a post card may be slipped into the hem 
making it easier to sew, and yet not too rigid. 

Step 3.~-The Seam. 

The preliminary steps here will only be in the act of - 
holding the material, and using the needle. Needles 
the class have been using in hemming must be used. 

Show a piece of hessian and bunting quite separate, 
and say you want to join them together. Knot string, 
join hands, and show anything that would illustrate 
uniting well, but only two illustrations, at most, at 
each lesson. 

Take a flat wooden needle, and slip it into the pre- 
pared seam. Let the children hold their work until 
it is seen they understand how to hold it between the 
fingers and thumb, then let the needles be threaded in 
exactly the way they have been doing for the hem. 
The " seam " must be the only new thing, until 

Then teach : — 

" What are we going to join together by a seam of 
stitches? " 

" The red bunting and the brown stuff." 

11 Yes ! So we must put the needle through both, and 
make stitches all the way along. Tack the end of the 
thread into the seam, as you did in hemming. Put 
your needle through the brown, then through the red, 
and pull ; now throw your thread over, and put it 


through the brown, and through the red again." (All 
the seams should be in the same order, red inside and 
brown outside). 

" Now you are making stitches — seaming — joining 
the red and the brown. You must watch the stitches 
coming all along your seam." 

The flat wooden needles must be pushed along with 
the stitches. Proceed as for hemming. Gradually do 
without the needle to make the work easy to hold, and 
use material in one colour as soon as the children are 

Step 4. — Running and Backstitch. 

Get the children to understand that it is a quick 
stitch, but we must begin by doing it slowly, one stitch 
at a time. 

Give out the same needles the children have been 
using for seaming, no thread, and some narrow pieces 
of soft material with a distinct stripe if possible, so 
that the running may be done bef^veen stripes, to 
incline the children from the first to go straight. 

The directions: — " Put your needle in, up, in, up," 
seem the best. Practise until the ordinary running 
stitch is gained. 

For backstitch, the directions ' in, up, back," should 
be used, showing carefully how it is done. 

Always let the children try a stitch with no thread, 
or the desire to go on will be uppermost, and the stitch 
will not be so effectively learned. 

Thread of a different colour from the material should 
be used. 

When all these stitches are mastered there is only one 
thing : —Resolve firmly that there shall be progress, 
desire earnestly that it shall reach the highest, and 
expect confidently that you and your class will gain 
your desire. 


No. 1. — Boiling. 

Apparatus. — Saucepan — Bowls — Knives — Cloths — Dish 
Cloth — Forks — Plates — Potatoes (dirty, washed 
only, peeled, cooked) — Tea — Oatmeal — Salt. 

" Now, we are going to have a first lesson on Cooking 
to-day! " 
Ask: — 

" What did you have for breakfast? " 

" Porridge." 

"Was it like this?" (Show meal.) 

" No! " 

" Why not? " 

Probable answers: " It was hot, wet, thick, etc." 

" What had been done to it to make it hot and wet? ' 

" Water ! " 

" Well try ! " £Let the children pour some water on 
the meal.) 

" Is that porridge? " 


" How was it made hot? " 

" Put on the fire." 

Yes ! That's it, but if we put the meal and water on 
the fire, it would burn, wouldn't it? Look! You 
cannot have that for porridge, can you ? ' 

"No! " 

" Well, what can we do? " 

" Put it in a pan! " 

"Yes! Can you find me one? Yes, that's it," 

" What else did we have for breakfast? ' 

" Tea." 

"Was it like this?" (Show dry tea.) 

" No! " 

" What did you do with the tea, eat it? ' 

"No: drink it! " 


" But you cannot drink this 1 ? ' ' 

" No; put water on." 

" Cold water? " 

11 No; hot water, from a kettle. " 

" Is there a kettle here? " 

"Yes! " 

" What has the water to do in the kettle before you 
can make tea"? " 

" Boil! " 

" How can you tell when it boils'? " 

" It bubbles, steam comes out! " 

" Yes. What would boiling water do to you if you 
poured it on to your hand? " 

" Scald it! " 

" Yes! " • 

" Now, who can tell me what these are?" (Show 

" Potatoes ! " 

"Yes! Which is the dirty one?" 

" Yes ! Show me the one with the skin off ! Now a 
clean one with the skin on ! Now a dirty one ! Feel 
these, and tell me if they are cooked ! " 

" No! " 

M Can you see a cooked one? " 

u Yes; this one! " 

u Taste a bit. Now a bit of this one ! The cooked 
one is quite soft and warm, and the other hard and 
cold. Which do you like best? " 

"The cooked one." 

1 How can we make these potatoes like the cooked 
one, so that we can eat them ? " 

" Put them in a pan ! " 

" Yes ! Get the pan. Have we to put anything into 
the pan to cook the potatoes in ? " 

« Water." 

" Yes! That's it. Now get some water, pour it into 


the pan until it is half-full, and put the pan on the 
fire, to— what? " 

" What will the water do if we leave it there? " 

" Boil! " 

11 Yes ! Well, leave it on the fire, and the kettle, too, 
so that we may have plenty of boiling water.' ' 

" Now, we must get the potatoes ready to go in. 
Look at the cooked one ! Then look at this raw one ! 
Tell me what has been done to it 1 ? " 

" The skin taken off ! " 

" Yes! ' (Show dirty potato and washed one.) 

" What was done to this to make it clean? " 

"Washed! " 

' Yes ! Now, look, here are potatoes in a bowl ! We 
must wash them, and then peel them. What shall we 
peel them with ? " 

" A knife." 

"Yes! Let me show you how to hold and peel, and 
you must peel thin ! You try, each one separately until 
you learn. Now we have done six potatoes. Put them 
into clean water. Now see if the water in the pan 
boils ! Listen ! I think it does ! Look, see all the 
bubbles ! Pour off the water from the potatoes, and 
drop them in, each one in turn. We shall leave them to 
boil. We must be careful the water dees not boil away. 

Now get those plates and put them by the fire to 
warm. Get a cloth and put it on that table. Put 
forks and salt on. What sort of a dish will you put 
the potatoes in when they are done ? Why, a tureen ! 
Let us warm it. Next, let us clean the knives we used 
to peel the potatoes with, and pour the water off the 
parings of the potatoes. When we have finished we will 
boil them for the hens." 

(The children should be kept busy cleaning knives, 
laying tables, washing bowls, etc., while the potatoes 

" Now, all look! What are the potatoes doing? ' 


" Boiling? " 

" Yes! What in? " 

" Water ! " 

" Yes ! We will try them with a fork to see if they 
are cooked ! No; not yet, they are not soft enough 
yet ! Now, they've had five minutes more. Yes ; I 
think they are done. Look, we pour off all the water, 
and put them to dry. They are wet because they have 
been in water. We don't want water on our plates, do 
we? What will dry the potatoes'? " 

" The fire ! " 

" Yes ! Look at the steam coming away as they dry. 
Get the nice hot dish, and we will pour them in — put 
on the lid to keep them hot." 

" Now let us put on the peelings for the hens." 

" Someone get the plates and put them on the table. 
Here's a potato for each of you ! Every one have a 
taste with a fork ! Now, they are all eaten ! " 

" Let us think what we did : — 

1. Put the pan half -full of water on the fire to get 

ready for the potatoes. 

2. Washed and peeled the potatoes, putting them into 

clean water. 

3. Put them in the pan when the water boiled, and 

took care there was plenty of water all the time. 

4. Washed bowls and cleaned knives; laid the table 

and put tureen and plates to warm. 

5. Dried the potatoes and put them in a tureen, 

dusted the plates and put them on the table. 

6. Put the peelings -on to boil. 

7. Ate all the potatoes. 

" Now we have something else to do for No. 8 ! What 
is it? " Why, wash up and put everything away ! " 



No. 2.— FRYING. 

Apparatus. — Frying Pans — Saucepans — Bowls — Plates 
—Knives and Forks— Table Cloth— Water— Cloths 
— Bread — Bacon — Cold and Raw Potatoes — Salt — 


" What did we cook last time'? " 

" Potatoes ! " 

" Yes. Were they clean when taken out of the 
ground ? " 

" No." 

" What did we do with them ! " 

" Wash them, peel them, and put them in cold 
water. " 

u Then what? " 

" Put them in a pan." 

" What had the pan in it? " 

" Water." 

" Yes. Was it cold? " 

" No, hot." 

" Yes. How did it get hot? " 

" We put the pan on the stove, then the water 

" Yes; then we put in the potatoes and they boiled, 
too ! " 

" When they had boiled enough, what did we do? ' 

" Eat them! " 

" Where were they? " 

" Gone !!!" 

" What were they food for? " 

"Our bodies." 

" Yes; to make us strong and able to work." 

" Someone show me the pan we boiled the potatoes in. 
Yes. Well, we are not going to boil anything to-day." 


(Show the bacon in the piece.) " Anyone know what 
this is? " 

" Bacon." 

" Yes. Well, I want to fry some. Can I fry it like 
this? " 

" No." 

"What shall I do? " 

" Cut it." 

"Yes; cut it in very thin slices. Watch!" (Cut 
several thin slices.) "We will put them there ready. 
Have you seen anything else on a dish with bacon? " 

" Fried bread." 

"Yes; that's it. Someone give me the loaf. Can 
we fry it like this? " 

" No; cut it again." 

" What did we cut the bacon into? " 
" Slices." 

" Yes. Now we will cut the bread. Show me a slice 
of bread ! Now the loaf ! A slice of bacon ! A lump 
of bacon ! We have the slices of bread and the slices 
of bacon all ready to fry, but I thought we would have 
some slices of potatoes as well. Who can fetch me the 
cold boiled potatoes ? Yes ! Now a knife ! Watch, 
while I show you how to cut a slice of potato ! You 
try ; be very careful you do not break it ! There, that 
will do. Tell me what we have prepared — slices of 
bacon, potato and bread ! The next thing we want is 
a frying pan. Can anyone find one ? Oh ! You have 
two ! Well, bring them here and put them on the paper 
on the table. We put the paper on so that the pan 
shan't blacken it. Now, if we want to cook, what must 
we do ? If we leave all these slices on the table, will 
they cook? " 

" No! Put them on the fire:" 

"What is the fire? " 



" Yes, we must have heat for cooking. Now, look 
at the bacon, what is the white part called ? " 

" Fat." 

" Yes, and the other is the pink lean. We will lay 
the slices of bacon in the pan, and put it on the fire. 
Listen! Can you hear anything? Little sizzling 
sounds? Now, what is coming out of the bacon ? " 

" Fat." 

" Yes. You know about that, you have it on your 
bread. We have other things to fry as well as bacon. 
Bread and potatoes ! Well, where shall we put them % 
In the other pan you think ? Get it and try ! Put the 
pan on the stove, then put in just a little bit of bread. 
Now, all watch carefully ! Oh ! What a smell ! What 
is the matter ? Oh ! dear ! Oh ! dear ! Now all look ! 
Tell me what has happened to the bread ? " 

"It is burnt black ! " 

" How sad ! Would anyone like to eat that? " 

"No! " 

" Well, we must put it away and clean the pan. 
Someone put the plates to warm, and someone come and 
clean the pan. 

" All listen. Look at the bacon ! What do you see 
in the pan ? Fat, don't you ! Well, there was no fat 
in the bread, so it all got burnt ! Look ! We will put 
the slices of bread in with the bacon. It won't burn 
now if we are careful, and turn it over when it is 
brown. There is no room for the potatoes in the bacon 
pan ; let us have the other one. Do you think the 
potatoes would burn like the bread ? " 

" I'm afraid they would. What can we do? " 
"Get some f at ! " 
"Yes! Where from? " 
" Out of the bacon pan ! " 

" No ! We cannot spare it, the bread will take it all. 
Now we must turn the bread ; look ! it is nice and 


brown . Well, can you find me any fat? Why, 

what is this? " 

11 Dripping." 

" Yes; that is fat. Put some in the pan, and watch 

it, it is melting , we can take it up with a spoon ! 

Listen, it is getting hot ! What a noise ! Listen, it is 
getting quiet : that means the fat is boiling, ready for 
the potatoes. Let us lay the slices in, and let them 
brown like the bread. The bread is done now, so is 
the bacon. Let us dish it; put it on this dish. 

' Now, turn your potatoes until they brown on the 
other side ! Put the plates and the bacon on the table. 
Are the potatoes done'? Why, yes !. Beautifully brown 
on both sides. Dish the potatoes ! What does that 

" Put them into -a dish! " 

" Yes ! How nice it looks ! What shall we do with it 
all? Eat it, you say? Very well, everyone have a 
little. What will nice things like this do for our 
bodies? " 

" Make them grow stronger and stronger." 

" Yes. Now I see dirty pans, dirty knives, plates, 
forks. Someone say what we shall do ! " 

" Wash them ! " 

"Yes, and make them clean, and put them away in 
their places. 

Remembering Lesson. 

" What did we do with the dirty potatoes? ' 

" Wash them, peel them, boil them, and eat them." 

" What did we boil them in? " 

" Water ! " 

" Now to-day we have not been boiling things in 
water, what did we do? " 

" Fry ! " 

"Yes, bacon, bread, potatoes! Did we burn any- 
thing? " 


" Yes, bread ! " 

" Why did it burn? " 

" No fat and no water in the pan." 

" Yes; that was the reason. Why didn't the bacon 

" Because it is fat itself, and when near the fire it 
melts ." 

" Yes. You have seen candles melt, haven't you'? ' 

" Did we burn the potatoes? " 


u Why not? " They are not fat! " 

u We put some fat in the pan to prevent it." 

" Well, then, if we don't want to burn things when 
we boil we must have ? " 

" Water ! " 

<( and when we fry, we must have ? " 

' r Fat! " 

" Would cold water and cold fat cook things? 


" We must have heat; and fat and water get hot 
when put on the fire." 


No. 3.— Baking. 

Apparatus. — Board and Rolling Pin — Bowls, RmVes, 
Spoons — Scales and Weights — Round and Tri- 
angle Cutters — Two Tins for Baking on — Flour, 
Dripping, Sugar, Currants — Peel, Milk, Baking 
Powder and Salt. 

" Here we are again, with our stove and (hold up a) 
saucepan to boil things, and our frying pan to fry 
things. What did we boil? " 

" Potatoes! " 

" Yes. Now tell me how we did it? " 

u Washed them, peeled them, and put them into clean 


cold water, then dropped them into boiling water, and 
let them boil." 

" What had we to watch for ? " 

" That the pan did not get dry.'" 

" Yes, and to prevent this we put water in out of 
the kettle. When the potatoes were cooked, we poured 
the water off and let them dry, as we don't like ivet 
potatoes to eat, then dished them. After that, what did 
we do? " 

" Ate them." 

" The last time we used this (hold up a frying pan) 
tell me what we did with it? " 

" Fried bacon." 

" What did we do with the bacon first? " 

" Cut it in slices." 

" Yes. Anything else? " 

" Bread." 

" Yes. What did we put into the frying pan first? ' 

" Bacon." 

" Why not the bread? " 

" It would burn." 

" Yes, we tried, didn't we? Why did it burn? " 

"No fat."- 

1 Yes, no fat. Then we fried potatoes. What did we 
do to prevent them burning? " 

" Put fat out of a jar into the frying pan, and let 
it melt, and boil, then put in the potatoes, and they 
fried nice and brown. When bacon and bread and 
potatoes were all cooked, what did we do? " 

" Ate them again." 

" So we did. That is the reason we cook, because 
raw, uncooked things are not nice. You tasted oatmeal 
not cooked, and did not like it, you remember." 

" To-day we are going to do something quite different. 
We are going to bake ! Does anyone know where an 
oven is 3 Can anyone see one ? Yes ! There it is. It 


has a door, hasn't it? Now, look at the stove; would 
you like to touch it? " 

"No! " 

"Why not? " 

" Burn! " 

" Yes. Well, before we can hake, we must open the 
oven door, as all baked things do best shut up in an 
oven. How can we manage? " 

" Take a cloth ! " 

"Yes; that's it! Now let me show you the right 
cloth. What is this wet one for ? " 

"To wash the dishes." 

" Yes. And this one to dry the dishes ! Here is 
the oven cloth, quite a thick brown one. You try to 
open the oven door, and shut it quickly to keep in the 
heat. Would things cook in a cold oven ? ' 

" No! " 

"No; to cook we must have heat." 

" What is this? " 

"A board." 
Yes; and this? " 

" A bowl." 

"And this? " 
"A rolling-pin." 

" Well, do you know what this is ? " 
" A round ring." 

"Yes; it is called a cutter, and here is one with 
three sides; what is it called? " 
"A triangle." 

" Right; what is this called? " 
" A tin." 

" Yes; we call it a baking tin. Get a bowl, and put 
it on the board, and get the scales to weigh things, 
like you do on Saturday at shop. Let us see what we 
have in this canister. Look, flour ! When we want to 
make bread or cakes, we must have flour. Get the 

Industrial lessons, 81 

pound weight, it is the largest; put it on the scale. We 
must pour the flour into the tin until it goes down. 
All look! Is it going? " 

" Yes." 

'• That is one pound of flour. Put it in the bowl. 
Next get a tiny piece of salt. In this tin we have 
some powder called baking powder, that is to make 
cakes nice and light, not hard and heavy. You measure 
two teaspoonf uls ; put it in the flour. Now you have 
nice clean dry hands, so you put your hands in the 
flour and rub it until it is well mixed. Yes; that will 
do. We must get some dripping, and weigh that. Get 
me a quarter pound weight; that means four ounces. 
But four ounces is not enough, so we must have that 
other little weight, too. It is two ounces. Now some- 
one can tell us what four and two make/' 

" Six! " 

" Yes. Next take some dripping out of the jar, 
and go on putting it into the tin until the weight 
comes up. We have six ounces of dripping. We must 
put it into the bowl with the flour, and Nell must rub 
it in, until there are no lumps. While she does that, 
Geoffrey can clean these currants; we are going to 
have two ounces in the cake. Show me the two ounce 
weight ! Well, you know how to weigh, get two ounces 
and put them into this cloth, and rub, and rub, then 
Jack can help to put them on to this plate with no 
stones and stalks. 

" Nell has rubbed in the dripping very well; Elsie 
get the sugar, it is in that canister. Now three 
ounces ! How can we do it 1 Here is the two ounce 
weight; look for a smaller one ! Yes; here is a smaller 
one, one ounce. Two and one make three, pour the 
sugar until the weight comes up. Put it into the bowl ; 
Nell mix it with her hands ; yes, so ! We will have a 
little candy-peel. Esmond, cut it in tiny pieces. Then 
put it in the bowl ! Jack bring the currants, put them 
in, too, and Nell mix it well. We have all our dry 
things ready, so you can take your hands out, Nell. 


We want to make it wet now, so that we can roll it 
out, and cut out nice cakes with the cutter. 

" What can we have to make it wet? " 

" Water." 

" Yes; that would do, but I se,e something else that 
would do better ! " 

" Milk? V 

" Yes ! We only want a very little. Elsie shall mix. 
Take a spoon, Elsie, and pour a little milk into the 
bowl ; mix it up with the spoon ; now a little more 
milk; be careful. It must not be too wet; that will do. 
Take a knife, cut the paste in half and put it on the 
board. Put the bowl on the table. Get the flour 
dredger; look, there it is; and shake it over your cake 
and over the board. Take the rolling pin and roll it 
out. That is not quite smooth, make it up into a ball 
and try once more. Now roll, until it is as <thiek as this 
cutter — measure it ! Yes ! Nell get the baking tin, 
and Elsie cut out the cakes like this, look, quite near 
each other. Esmond take a knife and slip it under the 
little round cakes, and put them on to the tin, so; 
not too near each other. Yes, Fred, open the oven 
door. Esmond, bring the tin and put them in. Shut 
the door quick, to keep the heat in. Mary must roll 
out the rest, until we use it all up, and cut out with 
the triangle this time. Get another tin ready, Esmond. 
Nell, open the oven door, and let us look; yes, they 
are rising — getting up, you know ! But we must turn 
them, so that they do not get too brown. Now, Elsie, 
put your triangles on this tin, just like we did the 

" Turn the cakes in the oven once more, they are 
nearly cooked." 

" Elsie, roll out that into one rather large cake like 
this ! Look, we have used up every bit, and these 
cakes are ready for the oven. Let us look if the 
round ones will make room ! Oh, yes ! Here they are, 
quite beautifully cooked. Look ! I will take them out 

Industrial lessons. 83 

of the oven; Nell, put the others in, and shut the door 
quickly to keep what in? " 

" The heat." 

" Yes. We will put the round cakes on a dish and 
while the others are baking, we will wash up and put 
away. We must scrub the board and rolling pin and 
put them to dry. Don't forget those triangles in the 
oven. Look in and turn them round. Clean the knives, 
Esmond. Jack, put the board by the fire to dry. 

" The cakes are quite done, baked to a lovely brown. 
Put them on another dish. Everyone may have one ; 
I will bring them round. A round or a triangle 1 Why 
does everyone take a round 1 " 

" Triangles too hot! " 

" Oh, yes ! I see ! We shall save them for tea ! " 

" What have we been doing 1 ? " 

u Baking !" 

" Yes. Tell me what we did ! " 

1. Got flour in a bowl, weighed one pound. 

2. Put in salt and baking powder. 

3. Weighed six ounces of dripping, and rubbed 
it in. 

4. Weighed three ounces of sugar, and mixed it. 

5. Cleaned two ounces of currants and cut peel, 

and put them in. 

6. Mixed everything into a paste with milk. 

7. Rolled it out, and cut cakes on the board with 

a cutter. 

8. Washed up and put things tidy while cakes 


9. Ate up the round cakes and saved the triangles 

for tea. 



Apparatus. — Clean and Dirty Oven and Tea Cloths- 
Clean and Dirty Dusters — Bowls or Baths, Soap, 
Soda, Blue, Dolly and Tub — Copper or Pan for 
Boiling, and, if possible — Small Wringers. 

" Look at all these cloths; what can you tell me 
about this one? ' (Hold up clean tea cloth.) 

" It is clean." 

" Yes; that is right. Tell me something about this 
one ! " " 

" Dirty! " 

" Yes, very ! How did it get dirty? " 

" Drying plates and dishes."' 

" Yes ! Look at this one ! How did this one get 
dirty? What did we do with it? " 

" Open the oven door, and take the cake tins out, 
and hold the pans with it ! " 

" Yes. What is this one called? " 

" An oven cloth." 

il Yes. How did this one get dirty? " 

" Dusting chairs, tables and knives." 

" What is it? " 

" A duster." 

" All be ready ! I am going to give each of you a 
cloth in your hands. You must be very careful, in- 
deed, to listen to what I say, or you will hold up 
the wrong cloth. All dirty dusters up ! All clean tea 
cloths up ! Now all clean dusters ! Now dirty oven 
cloths! Now clean ones! Now dirty teacloths." 

" Collect all the dirty cloths, Mary, and Jack all the 
clean. We know how these got dirty, don't we? Tell 
me how these got clean ! " 

"Wash them! " 

" Yes, that's it! Shall we have hot or cold water? ' 

" Hot." 

" Yes, that's right. First we shall put them into 

industrial Lessons. s5 

water to soak. Teacloths in one tub, and dusters and 
oven cloths in the other. A little warm water and a 
lot of cold. While they soak, so that the dirt may 
come out, we shall get two more tubs ready to wash 
them in, then we shall have to boil them, like we did 
the potatoes. We will take this big iron pot for that, 
and put it on the stove. Now, bring a can of water and 
fill it up ; then put a tub there, and another here. Jack, 
bring some water. " 

" John, get a can from the tap, full of hot water, 
and put some into these two tubs. Mary, get the soda, 
and put a little into each tub. Where is the soap 1 
We will take the teacloths out of soak first. Who can 
wring them out. Well, try ! We have to wring 
and squeeze until all the water is out. Look, 
hold tight with your left hand, and wring with 
your right, turn your hand over, get it quite 
tight, now double up the end so, and try again, 
until no water drops. Throw them into the tub ; 
wring out the dusters, and put them into the other 
tub. We can have two washers at each tub. Look 
for the marks, rub some soap on them, and then rub 
it hard between your hands, so, until you move the 
mark. All those who are not washing must fold the 
dry cloths neatly on the desk. Corners together ! 
Folded in half ! All corners together again ! folded 
in quarters ! Once more, folded in eighths. Count the 
folds ! 

" Now these tea cloths are clean, so put them into 
the dolly tub. Take the dolly and knock them about. 
Anne and Jo come and wash the oven cloths. Jack 
wring out the dusters, and you wring the tea cloths 
out, then dolly the dusters and wring them out, and we 
will put them in the pan to boil. Now you must dolly 
the oven cloths. Have you finished 1 Well, wring them 
out and put them in this basket. We must empty the 
tubs, and put cold water into them both for rinsing. 
In this one we will put a little blue. Who can find itl 
Get me a stick. Are those oven cloths ready ? We will 


boil them. Look, I want to show you how to get the 
cloths out of boiling water without burning yourself. 
Put in the stick, bring up the cloth, and put it into 
the bowl. Someday you shall try. We rinse them 
in this water to get the soap off. Now, wring again, 
as I showed you before, and put them into the blue 

" The next thing to do is to put them through the 
wringer. You know how to do that. One turn the 
handle, and the other hold the cloth. Do the same 
with the oven cloths. I hope you have not left any 

water in ? " 

" We must go into the garden and peg them on the 
line to dry. Then empty and dry all the tubs, and put 
them away. When the cloths are dry, we shall fetch 
them in, and fold and put them through the mangle. 
You must be very careful to keep them straight, 
corners just together. To-morrow we shall iron." 


u Here are the cloths we washed, all folded ready for 
ironing. Here are some irons. Someone feel them. 
Will they do for ironing? Try; does it bring the 
creases out and make the cloth quite smooth and dry? 
Oh ! no ! It makes it look ugly, and see ! There are 
marks of the table on it. How dreadful ! We must 
think of something else to do." 

" Tell me, if you want to dry anything what do you 
do? " 

" Put it near the fire, or in the sun." 

u Yes. Well, they are hot, are they not?" 

" Yes." 

" We want this iron to make this cloth smooth and 
dry, so we must make it hot. We will put them on 
the stove, and while they get hot, we can get ready." 

" We have to prevent the table marking the cloth, 
so we shall put this blanket on, and the sheet on the 
top. Then the iron stand must go here, or the hot iron 


would burn the table. Put a cloth on the sheet ready 
to iron. The iron is hot now. Will anyone take it 
oft" the stove 1 Wait ! What have you to hold the 
oven door with ? " 

u A cloth.' ' 

" Yes. We cannot do that with the iron, so you 
must find a holder. You have often made them. Now, 
that's all right. Clean your iron, Anne, and you, too, 
Jane. Be careful it is not too hot; try it on that 
paper. Yes; it will do now, so bring it here, and 
iron the cloth. 

" Look how the threads in the cloth go, make your 
iron follow them." 

•' Now hang the cloth on this little horse, and we 
will let them stay by the fire. We have finished, and 
have nice clean cloths. What did we do? " 

1. Soak. 

2. Rub and wring. 

3. Dolly them. 

4. Boil them. 

5. Rinse them. 

6. Blue them. 

7. Wring and hang out to dry. 

8. Fetch them in and fold them, leaving them all 


9. Iron them. 

10. Air them. 

11. Put them away in the drawer. 

12. Use them again ! 



I am anxious that my last chapter should be as active 
as possible. 

We are told in books that infants are attracted by, 
and are interested in, sound and movement . It is very 
natural, for are we not all more interested in move- 
ment than anything else 1 And are not sound and 
movement very near relatives 1 I am anxious to lead 
teachers of these deepest defectives to meditate a little 
on the word " movement " before trying to produce it 
in their children. 

What is movement 1 Not merely getting from one 
chair to another. Not just repeating a rhyme. 
Taking one example only, e.g., " The Oxford Move- 
ment," believe me, you will need all the Desire, all the 
Power, all the Will of the movers in that movement to 
move the multitudes of sick that await your movement 
to move them to move. 

We hear of people being moved to tears, moved to 
laughter. Great deeds done just through spoken words 
moving people to do them. I take the following words 
from a novel: — " The carrying out of any human 
action depends upon two things — Will and Power. If 
either be wanting nothing can be accomplished, for if 
the Will be lacking, no attempt at all is made to do 
what is not willed; whereas if there is no power, the 
will is all in vain." 

I think they are a wonderful help to the realis- 
ation of the cause of our failure in producing progress, 
when we look on our work, and think, was it really 
our best we gave? " I have done my best, I can do no 
more," is a very common phrase, and one that is 
meant to cover limitless lack of the use of power and 


will, but we hesitate to make a free use of it again 
if we listen to the question: " Was that really your 
best 1 ? I am sorry for you ! " 

I have so much wanted a suitable heading for this 
chapter. The words that come to me over and over 
again, to the crowding out of all others, are " Stir 
up, O Lord, we beseech Thee, the wills of Thy faithful 
people, that they plenteously bringing forth the fruits 
of good works, shall of Thee be plenteously rewarded." 
The first time I remember being stirred by the words 
was some fifty years ago hearing some country Sunday 
School boys talking about u Stir up Sunday ! " In 
this work we need to be stirred each moment, bearing 
in mind that movement may be the best or the worst 
thing in the world. 

A true understanding means life and progress — mis- 
understanding, a standing still, and then backsliding. 

I will begin practically at the very beginning with a 
little example from life: — 

A little boy, nearly three years old, 'came to us. He 
was a well-nourished child of the mongol type. He 
could not walk, but, like many more I had dealt with, 
I thought he only wanted to be shown how to use his 
power. When I tried to put him on his feet, his knees 
gave, and he seemed to have no idea of feeling with 
his feet, as he had no idea of helping himself with his 
hands. The instinct of self-preservation was absent. 
When put on the floor on his face, he crawled, merely 
dragging his legs, and seeming to move on his chest 
like a flat fish on land. The doctor determined that 
there was no physical cause for his condition, that it 
was purely a lack of mental development. 

The little fellow was constantly moving, he was never 
still — rolling about with no aim or purpose. We tried 
to get him to use his feet, without success. A small 
chair was made with castors fixed to the legs, and of 
such a height that his feet were bound to touch the 
ground. We kept pushing him in the direction of 
things he liked, and his feeling of unsafety made him 


clutch the stick in front. After this was accomplished, 
he found he could move himself, so we gave him a 
great deal of the chair, until a connection between feet 
and brain was formed. We then tried to get him to go 
in a walking machine with plenty of support — with 
no avail. Stand he would not. So we made a stand- 
ing machine from an ordinary shop chair with two 
rings, padded the hole of the seat, put toys on the 
back and in pockets round the side, to induce him to 
reach about, and forget he was standing. A bodice 
with broad strips was put on to him, and he was 
attached to the lower rung of the chair, which was 
weighted so that it could not fall. By-and-bye he stood 
without being attached, and was then put into a walk- 
ing machine, and we were able to move his feet for 
him. He then began to go in it alone. When we 
attempted to make him stand without support or walk 
he resisted our efforts with all his might. He hated 
to be controlled, but uncontrolled, purposeless move- 
ments are a danger, and barrier to any progress, so 
we were obliged to persist. At last we succeeded in 
getting him to walk a little, but we had to protect 
him, as he had no idea of avoiding obstacles. I tried 
for him, as I tried for all children who can't walk, a 
doll's pram or little push-chair with weights on, to 
induce them to push and walk steadily. In twelve 
months he began to walk of his own free will ; in 
eighteen months he is always walking, can climb, pick 
things up, get up off the floor. His walk is still 
rather unnatural, but daily improving. 

This chapter ought, perhaps, to have been my first, 
as the success of everything we have gone through in 
our other chapters is dependent upon what we are 
able to do by movement. I strongly advocate getting 
control of the larger muscles before spending much 
time on finger or speech training. Balance must be 
our aim. We have thought about this in connection 
with physical exercises, but we must aim at it all day 
long, and remember what we desire in every movement 


-, : ,:■■:■■ ' ^ ■ ■ 




we make. It is a big difficulty. We cannot expect 
natural balance of body from an imperfect guidance. 
We must give out on all sides to get it. It is a thing 
that is most difficult to teach or explain. A normal 
infant throws away help of his own accord, and teaches 
himself through his curiosity and desires. We have to 
incite our little ones of the lethargic group to move at 
all, with help at first, and then alone, making them 
self-active the moment we are able. But balance is a 
pain and a grief, and can only be gained by exertion. 
Now, the good-natured teacher has to learn that it is 
through withholding her bodily aid and working with 
her mind alone in general movement through the day 
that she gives of herself in the right way to these 
infants. How tempting it is to push a child to his 
place, instead of calling him to come ! To take his 
hand and lead him ! Help him up and down steps ! 
Pick up his shoes or ball for him ! 

We must control our movements, and let our little 
ones risk things for the good of the balance of their 
minds and bodies. Each time we lend an unnecessary 
hand, we deprive our children of development. We 
have to remember we need the " every time " and more. 
One of our rules is " Never do anything for a child 
that he can do for himself." The children who move 
always, unless a restraining hand is put upon them, 
must have active occupation found for them, never 
forcing them to sit still for long at a time, forestal- 
ling outbreaks from restlessness by giving them con- 
stant change. Preventing uncontrolled movements by 
substituting the controlled, this is the only way to 
get the will to take the guidance of the impulses. Of 
course, there must be some discrimination, letting love 
bd our guide — a tired or grieved child must have the 
twofold aid. 

I will now give a detailed account of some of the 
ways we try, through moving the body, to bring 
general powerfulness. 

We start our babies on a table with table exercises. 


The little body is laid straight, and movements done 
with the limbs. They are taught to stiffen knees, 
straighten arms. They learn to move arms, legs, head, 
when told; then one arm, one leg; to put arms up, 
legs down. To sit up while the knees are held. The 
child is getting stronger, and learning the use of the 
parts of his body, in preparation for balancing later, 
when he is able to stand well and move the limbs 

Our whole aim is to get rhythm into the body. I have 
spoken of school drill in another chapter, but I should 
like to say here that we find it best to use a variety 
of things as aids to rhythmic movements : — wands, 
hoops, flags, clipper-clappers, dumb-bells, triangles, 
tambourines. The child is interested in his instru- 
ment, and forgets himself. 

A book published by Curwen called " First Lessons in 
Rhythmic Gymnastics, " is very helpful, and opens up 
a vast area by a simple beginning. 

Then dances of various kinds, with scarves, bells, 
handkerchiefs, flowers, tambourines, beginning simply. 
An excellent little book called " Follow my Leader " 
(Curwen) is a help. Even what are spoken of as lowest 
grade children love them, and after patient teaching 
begin to move rhythmically. The mistress must have 
a stout heart, and clear head, and a gift for drawing 
out joy in movement, but it can be done, and I am 
seeing it every day. Things that to attempt seemed 
foolish are reaching their fulfilment. Musical Games 
and Action Songs must have their place, and each little 
voice have freedom to join, however untuneful the 
sound may be to musical ears. So long as joy is pre- 
sent, we are drawing out what we desire. The teachers 
must impart it by enjoying the play so much, that 
they stop, longing for more. We know how happy the 
children have been if this is the case. Another great 
help to rhythm is the School Band. Drums, triangles, 
cymbals, bells, castanets, and tambourines are the 
instruments. Stirring tunes properly conducted are 


much enjoyed. Little Mongolians of three, four, and 
five beat drums and tambourines to time. Singing 
should be aimed at, as an exercise for the lungs even 
where no tune is to be had, but waiting and trying 
brings success. Learning to play the Piano is an excel- 
lent finger exercise, but it means individual work. 

Passing from the musical to other aids to balance, we 
find Gardening an indispensable help. The child is 
busy; he and she have no idea how they are helping 
themselves to balance by carrying cans, wheeling 
barrows, or using hoe and rake and spade. The valu- 
able thing is the purpose in movement and the interest 
in planting, let alone the knowledge of plants, seeds, 
fruits, etc., they cannot get in any other way. 

The well-known horizontal ladder (described by 
Seguin) should be in every playground. No child can 
walk over the rungs without lifting the feet, balancing 
on the rungs, climbing up the vertical ladder, holding 
by hands and feet, limbs stiff, holding by hands alone 
are all excellent exercises, as is also the use of the 
balancing beam. No one knows until they try how 
difficult it is to induce children to walk putting one 
foot in turn before the other. A line chalked on the 
floor, broad at first, narrowed as the child's ability 
grows, is a good way to begin. 

We must now leave occupations and helpful lessons, 
and turn to a most important part of general move- 
ment — free play, which really needs the most ingenious 
and powerful mind to direct as well as to create it, 
moment by moment as need and circumstance arise. 

I plead for material — balls, bats, scooters, hoops, 
sandheaps, skipping-ropes, barrows, toy railway trucks, 
horses, dolls, dolls' prams, spades, buckets, and a 
carpenter's bench for elder boys. The old-fashioned 
games " Nuts in May," "When I was a Lady," 
" Poor Jenny sits a-weeping," etc., have their use, and 
must not be left out of the table. Again, minds of 
power, and wills of strength are needed to make imag 


ination and movement reach the height they should. It 
must be frolic of the merriest kind. 

So much for out-of-door free play; now for indoor 
games on wet or winter days, which need even greater 
expanse of power and freedom of gift on the part of 
the directors of this sort of movement. Useful appar- 
atus consists of material for shop lesson, tea parties 
for a specified number — Dr. Goddard says that if you 
ask a " moron " to lay a table for four persons the 
chances are that she will lay it for only three — with 
real things to eat and real cups to wash up, books, 
toy trains, carts, puzzles, dolls, bats, balls. The old- 
fashioned games of "Blind Man's Buff," "Turn the 
Trencher," " Musical Chairs," " Family Coach," etc., 
are favourites still, and so are games of the imagina- 
tion, i.e., trains, horses, 'buses, milkman, dustman, 
postman, bathing in the sea, and many things also 
which I have no room to detail here, remembering 
always to take for our guiding spirit Joy. Never be 
satisfied during playtime if the need of it is present 
in a single heart, either of the agent who imparts or of 
the infants who hold out their innocent souls and both 
hands for it. Though we cannot always see them with 
our eyes, or feel them with our hands, yet their aspir- 
ations reach us as vve wait and listen and desire 

At the risk of tiring you, I must say one thing more ; 
I was watching some imbecile children at play. I 
noticed a little " Mongol " boy standing on one leg 
for the pure joy of it, and letting himself fall amid 
roars of laughter. I noticed the same boy at meals, 
he is making conversation on his own initiative, offer- 
ing to hand things, or fetch, or carry. 

Two years ago he would not have moved at all unless 
told to do so ! 



I have been told that my simple little book, which 
has met with so kind a reception, is not complete with- 
out a chapter on the beginning of speech-training. 
It was a purposeful omission, I fear, as my ideas on 
the subject are unorthodox. I do not believe thait a 
child can be trained to express himself through sound 
by lessons in the imitation of sounds. I think it 
retards instead of advancing the use of speech. 

One of our greatest sorrows is our inability to get 
speech by some practical mechanical measure that can 
be stated quite definitely for the benefit of inquirers. 
How often have I been told, " He (or she) is quite 
normal, but he does not speak " ? Again, " Yes, I 
should like him to use his hands, but I would raither 
he would speak than anything." Or, " It would be 
well if he could walk, but I should like most time 
spent on teaching him to speak." 

It is strangely difficult to get people to consider the 
natural order of development, and Ito realise that 
words can be empty things, and that it is better to 
maintain the dignity of silence than to chatter mean- 

I will enumerate the different types of speech-defect 
I have come into touch with, and indicate the way I 
have tried to deal with them: — 

(1) The child who, though his hearing is good, does 

not speak at all ; he crys and laughs and will 
give shouts of joy and anger. 

(2) The child who says single words, chiefly names 

of people or things, when he chooses only. 

f$r Feeble Mind 


(3) The child who expresses himself volubly in a 

language of his own, with change of tone in 
the voice, but is quite unintelligible to anyone 

(4) The subject of echolalia, who merely echoes 

what is said and never asks or answers a 

(5) The parrot-like chatterer who chatters all day, 

just strings of words, unconnected with ques- 
tion or answer. 

(6) The spastic paralytic, who uses all the muscles 
at once, and will not localise for speech. 

(7) The child who never uses a consonant sound, 

making use of vowels only. 

(8) The child who uses only an initial or final con- 


(9) The child who adds a sound ito each word, i.e , 

" cab-boo," " boy-boo." 

(10) The deaf imbecile child. 

We desire to have language from these little ones 
whose pathway through life is abnormally difficult. 
To get the class of speech we want we must have ideas. 
How do we get them? Through seeing, hearing, and 
touching, or, in a word, through movement. It is 
agreed that each sense has its centre in the brain ; part 
of each of these must lend itself to the forming of 
words. Miss Drummond in her book, " The Dawn of 
Mind," says: "The main work of infancy is the 
linking-up of centres of the senses, which brings forth 
intelligent language." In the grade of child of which 
I write this is just what does not take place; the act 
of connecting is not performed, therefore, the absence 
of sentences is explained, and the presence of single 
words only, or mere imitations of sounds. 

Another great drawback to the active forming of 
ideas is that the great educator, curiosity, is generally 
absent from the brain of the uneducated low grade 


defective. It must be wooed and won for the child by 
his teacher, who must help him to rise above Peter 
Bell, to whom. 

" A primrose by the river's brim 
A yellow primrose was to him, 
And it was nothing more." 

So often we are told when a child is brought to us : 
a He understands everything that is said; why does 
he not speak 1 ? " There is much thought without 
speech ; a child can understand things he is in daily 
contact with through what is said. <to him long before 
his ideas are formed enough to bring forth words. 

I shall do best, I think, to take my numbered defects 
one by one: — 

(l) My experience with children who do not speak 
at all is mainly with Mongols, whose speech 
comes to them very late in the low grade 
cases, or in simple cases of imbecility 
of no special type. The endeavour to get 
ideas expressed in words by these children 
obviously lies in the training of the child 
himself by all the methods we have spoken 
of,* and by as many more as we can create. 

Our special efforts to get speech must begin by trying 
to get the modulation of the voice. We mus.t never 
forget that the great forerunner of speech is gesture; 
the infant's intense movements of arms and legs when 
he sees his bottle are just one big " Be quick ! Why do 
you tarry !■'" So we must noit repress gesture but 
train and encourage it, having faith that it will bring 
speech in time. The chief things in all our lessons 
must be " Life " ; nothing without energy will help 

Any sound should be made much of to begin with. 
The children might be sheep and the teacher the shep- 
herd ; a vigorous " Baa-baa-irrg " as she inviites them 
into the fold will induce imitation. It is well to play 

*See Chapter IV. 


the same game and add something new in sounds — the 
" bow-bow " of the dog is interesting, and the first 
child who makes the sound might be asked to take the 
dog's part. For a sound lesson, models and pictures 
should be very plentiful. From these simple sounds 
we get definite words, e.g., ball, bat, baby, come, cat, 
etc., and by and by the definite learning of the letters 
of the alphabet is helpful to naming things. The 
simple sound is easy to make, and we can have letters 
in such variety. All sounds should have some connec- 
tion with something seen and done. I could give end 
less examples if I had space, but I am sure all teachers 
will realise that to keep moving is the right method, 
for movement in its widest sense includes intelligent 

- (2) Children ivho say single words only : 

In these cases speech is largely involuntary. Ideas 
are not formed enough to produce language; all efforts 
must be encouraged and a word accepted however 
indifferently pronounced. I repeat that in this stage, 
as in stage one, the lesson devoted to speech must be 
living. Comparison of pictures and objects is a help- 
ful method, e.g., a picture of a clock is pinned on the 
board; in answer to " Who can tell me what this is? ' 
we get " tick-tock " and other attempts. If someone 
says " clock " let each member of the class try to 
imitate. Make a point that " clock " is the name, 
" tick-tock " the sound, ithen ask for a real clock to be 
brought, and ask, " What is this? " "What does it 
say? " To encourage shy people it is best to have the 
class say the words in answer to questions altogether, 
loudly then softly, then one after the other. We often 
surprise a child into speech by such methods. Any 
object we are taking may be hidden; the children are 
anxious to find, and so the words "lost, found, hide, 
look, seek," in connection with the clock are intro- 
duced. The question, "Who found it?" and the 
answer, " I did " from the individual and ' John 
did " from the class should be (tried for. This is just 


a tiny example. To take one child as the object, and 
get him to walk, jump, run, cry, laugh, eat, lie down, 
stand, sit, makes a really moving lesson, as all the 
class are so anxious to take his place, and will readily 
reply as far as they are able to questions such as, 
" What is he doing?" " Jumping," etc. " He is 
jumping," should be exacted as soon as possible. An- 
other way to incite the children to speak is to have 
pictures of well-known objects, animals and people, 
and get them, not to let each other see, but to say what 
they have got themselves, inducing them to say some- 
thing about the picture in answer to questions. After- 
wards they delight in telling what each other has. We 
must try for a desire to speak really big enough to 
induce the children to make real efforts. When once 
this is gained we may try sounds in connection with 
the letters of the alphabet. Until the children are 
further advanced in thought all gaining of speech 
must be done with a definite object. I advocate letters 
in great variety. I have found the naming and point- 
ing out a valuable beginning to the naming of other 
things; we musit remember we are dealing with chil- 
dren who have little knowledge of words. 

I have, by the kindness of Miss Bullock, connected a 
phonetic chart with this chapter. My method of using 
it is as follows : The children know their alphabet in 
many forms. I take each letter separately and say, 
u You know the name of this letter " B " ; now listen 
for the sound of it — " Bull." Get the children to make 
it, then give examples of words beginning with the 
sound, e.g., ball, bag, butter, bread, etc., and so on 
with each letter, being careful to use the directions on 
the chart and let the children know where the sounds 
come from — the lips, throat, tongue. When the simple 
consonant sounds are mastered, I try for the final 
consonant connected with a vowel, as, at, it, ot, tit, 
then add the initial, bad, bed, bid, bod, bud, giving 
stirring illustrations of the words. 

The children now know the names of the letters and 


their sounds, and the names of objects, people, and 
animals they are in daily contact with. I want to 
plead that at this sltage they should be given daily a 
sight of something that they do not see in the ordinary 
day's course, and that the teacher should try to forget 
that there is a possibility they do not understand. If 
this is done, the children's attention is gained. I have 
found much help from the following words: — 

' In education, as in life, a child gains continu 
ally by contact with the unfamiliar, at whose 
meaning it guesses." 

/ It is from the mind's tendency to conjecture 
that we learn to think." 

The words express exactly what I mean when I ask 
for variety in whatever we do. We must bear in mind 
that our pupils are not seekers by nature, and often 
take the same pathway day by day, unless we lead 
them down another. 

The time for sentence forming is now ripe. I have 
found it come most naturally through reading. I 
make no point that the words shall be remembered, but 
just let them say them and let memory come naturally. 
How can I make it clear that our aim must be to get 
ideas full enough to make the children dissatisfied with 
single words as a sole means of expression. We must 
strive to create in them a desire to express akin to 
Helen Keller's, who speaks of the pain of not being 
able to express her ideas until she was given a means. 

I could give many examples of failure and some 
of success, but I must confine myself to stating the 
method I have proved to be best. I must remind my 
readers I am speaking of low-grade imbeciles. I found 
I could not ge)t them to remember words I was unable 
tj give concrete examples of. I am using large 
coloured words, and am trying to make each word live. 
I take all connecting words as joining words. I let 
the children stand and give them the word " and ' 
to hold between two. " Jack and Patrick and Joe," 


etc. Then the words that point out as pointers — " This 
book on that table " ; words that tell us to do things — 
put, run, walk, etc. ; words that ask questions — when, 
why; words that tell us where ito put things — on, in, 
etc. ; words that give names a rest — he, she, it, I, etc. ; 
words that tell us what things are like — pretty, ugly, 
nice, good, nasty, etc. 

To take one example: — " The boy and dog ran to 
the mat/' 

To " the " the children point to show they know the 
use of the word; although " boy " would generally be 
understood, some of the class probably point to them- 
selves and say " me — boy " ; " and " brings the action 
of joining; " dog would be quite familiar, and " ran " 
would bring the action of running " to the mat." I 
then give the sentence to each child in separate words, 
and get them to form it themselves. The children I 
have taught certainly gained by this method. 

I have been very lengthy over (2) ; the building up 
is the most difficult and important. 

(3) The child who expresses himself in his own 
language, but is not intelligible to others : 

This needs patience, but the will to use sound as a 
means of expression is hopeful. We must try for 
control through imitation of sound. Sometimes it may 
be gained by singing. The only way is 'to get words 
in connection with the child's chief interest at first, 
and link up words and sentences by degrees. As the 
child finds he gets what he wants more readily by 
using words, he will take to them of his own accord. 

(4) Echolalia is difficult to get rid of. It is very 
often laziness ; the repetition saves the trouble of think- 
ing of an answer. A great deal of persistent energy 
is required, as the teacher must always be on the spot 
to suggest the right answer at first, until we are sure 
the child is able to answer unaided, then we must insist 
that the right reply is given the first time— no repeti- 


tion must be allowed. I have a boy of eight who is 
quite cured, and a girl of eleven nearly so. 

(5) The chatterer, who, to quote Dr. Shuttleworth, 
" will speak less when she has more to say." We must 
try for control in this case, and (where possible) prevent 
at all times talking except with meaning ; asking ques- 
tions, trying for the right answer. It is truly a ques- 
tion of prevention; when the control is gained we can 
begin the building process. 

(6) The spastic paralytic. — In most of these cases the 
ideas are there and also the desire to express them. 
The obstacle in the way of coherent speech is lack of 
control of the muscular energy. They use all the 
muscles at once, and do not localise for speech, or, 
indeed, at all. If we ask for the right arm to be 
used, the left is moved also, and so on. 

The way to begin is to teach the child to relax all 
the muscles of the body, and then to use one limb at a 
time, learning from this how to control his energy. 
When this is mastered and as the whole balance of 
body and mind increases and self-control and the 
management of the muscles advances, speech will 
improve. The phonetic chart will be helpful with the 
consonant sounds. I have also found dwelling on the 
vowel sounds to the piano a great help. Anything that 
gives modulation to the voice seems the right way to 
work, but the unfailing rule should be relax before 
you speak. 

For this and other cases I seem to ask for the very 
life of the teacher, but if you get wearied and discour- 
aged turn to Rugby Chapel, and think of that great 
teacher written about by his son. These lines are in- 
spiring : — 

" We were weary, and we 

Fearful, and] we in our march 
Fain ito drop down and to die. 
Still thou turnedst, and still 
B'eckonedst the trembler, and still 
Gavest ithe weary thy hand. 
If, in the paths of the world, 


Stones might have wounded thy feet, 
Toil or dejection have tried. 
Thy spirit, of that we saw 
Nothing — to us ithou wast still 
Cheerful, and. helpful, and firm ! 
Therefore to thee it was given 
Many to save with thyself; 
And, at the end of thy day, 
O faithful shepherd! to come, 
Bringing thy sheep in thy hand." 

(7) I have known two cases of practically norma] 
children who were brought to me as possibly ment- 
ally defective, who used only vowel sounds. " Pussy 
in the water " was expressed as " Ooee ee a aw-er. ' 
The girl who spoke like this was partially deaf; she 
grew up a responsible person, and spoke intelligibly; 
she was taught by the phonetic chart. 

A boy whoise name was Harry was sent to me by a 
doctor at 6^ years. His trouble was laziness chiefly. 
He called himself " ah-ee" his nurse " ah-ah." I jjot 
him ,to learn how to form all his consonant sounds. He 
got interested, and soon learned to read by the Sonnen- 
schein method. In six months he read very well, and 
articulated perfectly. 

(2) The child who uses only an initial or final con- 
sonant. — If he will not finish a word, the plan is to 
give a great deal of practise in the vowel sounds with 
the consonants added, as ag, egg, ig, og, ug. All 
lessons should be in connection with something done. 
Letters are a help, as the consonants may be added, 
and when the finals are mastered the initials may be 

(9) I have known cases who prolong each word by 
a syllable that fascinates them. — Conquering the habit 
is just a majtter of quickness, really preventing the 
unnecessary syllables being said. One boy of my 
acquaintance at seven years old added " boo " to 
every word. " May-boo I-boo go-boo in-boo a-boo cab' 
boo V If the child happens to be musical, singing is 
a great help. Interesting things to recite and read 
have to be found, and the teacher must constitute her- 


self into a mental splint for the child, and prevent, 
until the habit of speaking properly is formed. 

(10) I have only known two deaf imbeciles — one boy 
and one girl. Both were able to make themselves 
understood through gestures; neither could learn by 
the ordinary oral method of teaching the deaf. The 
girl learned to express herself to some extent through 
the manual alphabet. Both were quite tractable if 
reasonably treated, and were clever at handwork of 
all kinds. The deafness of the boy was not detected 
until he came to me. His defects were put down to 
imbecility. His ability to do things for himself, his 
clean habits, and his facility in imitating action and 
copying writing and drawing told me that there must 
be some cause added to his imbecility which prevented 
his responding to his name when called. He was 
proved to be quite deaf. We had to be careful with 
both children to keep to a fairly regular routine, as 
we could not explain reasons for change. Both had 
quick tempers, and showed displeasure by screaming 
until they were trained. The boy became reasonable 
and tractable, the girl was always difficult. 

The whole getting of language is simply the giving 
up of oneself in all ways and from every direction, 
never losing an opportunity of raising the children, 
giving great praise for efforts made, always drawing 
out more and more and more the desire to love and to 
express it in words and actions — 

For life, with all it yields of joy and woe and hope and fear, 
Is just our chance of the prize of learning love : 
How love might be, hath been indeed, and is. 

— Browning. 

(Miss Ethel Bullock.) 






I G.* 

(hard as 
in "gig") 

Formation of Consonant Sounds. 

Formed by simple emission of breath in 
conjunction with vowel sound follow- 

Formed by upper teeth resting lightly 
against inner side of lower lip, with 
simple emission of breath. 

Formed as above with slight vocal vibra- 

Formed by resting sides of tongue against 
upper teeth with emission of breath be- 
tween tip of tongue: and teeth. 

Formed as explosive sound by pressing 
lips lightly together and parting very 
quickly and sharply to emit breath. 

Formed as above but with vocal vibration 
and more marked lip pressure. 

Formed by pressing tip of tongue lightly 
against back of front teeth and then 
separating quickly with sharp emission 
of breath. 

Formed as above but with more marked 
pressure and vocal vibration. 

Formed by pressing back of tongue 
lightly against soft palate and then 
separating quickly with sharp emission 
of breath. 

Formed as above but with some vocal 

* Th© asterisked sounds correspond to those preceding them in 
each pair, but are of heavier character, attended with some amount 
of vocal vibration. 


G (soft) — J. Formed as combination of D. S. H. 

L. Formed by resting tip of tongue lightly 

against hard palate at back of front 
teeth and letting it fall with a liquid 

M. Formed by pressing lips lightly together 

during nasal and vocal vibration. 

N- Formed by resting the front edge of the 

tongue against the back of the upper 
teeth during nasal vibration. 

Ng. Formed by pressing back of tongue 

against soft palate, during nasal vibra- 

Q a Formed as compound of K. and W. 

R B Formed by vibratory movement of 

tongue against hard palate. 

S. Formed by sharp emission of breath 

through slightly parted teeth producing 
hissing sound. 



Formed as above, but with some vocal 

Sh 8 Formed by pressing the sides of the 

tongue against the sides of the teeth 
with lips protruded in the position for 
" or," emitting a hissing sound. 

Sharp sound formed by combination of 
the letters T. S. H. on the lines of S, H. 

"■ Formed by combination of the letters 

D, S, H, on the lines of D, Ch. 

W, Is practically the vowel " oo." 

Wh. Formed by emission of^ breath through 

lips rounded as in whistling. 

X, Formed as compound of K, and S. 

Y. Is practically a short " ee." 















(1) Single Long Vowels. 

Mouth fully open during free emission of 

Lips rounded into position for whistling 
during emission of voice. 

Lips elongated as in the position for smil- 
ing, sides of tongue against sides of 
teeth being in almost the same position 
as for the letter S, during emission of 

Lips well protruded during emission of 

Modified position of " or." 

(2) Single Short Vowels. 
as in the word fat. 


(3) G ompo and or Double Vowels. 
as in the word fail, 


On looking back through these pages, I fear they 
appear one-sided. It is seemingly all give, give, give 
on the part of the teacher, that through her or his 
gifts the mind of the child may live and grow. But 
has it not been said, and are we not sadly witnessing 
day by day at present, that greater love hath no man 
than this, that he giveth his life for his friend 1 

At the end of my last chapter I gave an example of 
a little lad who through such love has gained balance 
of mind enough to take joy in his power of balancing 
his body. I know that the joy of teachers who have 
brought this and like things about partakes of the 
joy of that most wonderful thing going through all life 
— true parent's love. The knowledge that their young 
live and need them is the fullness of joy. So teachers 
of these little ones who are full of need, must remem- 
ber that just the same development could not take 
place without his or her particular gifts, taking cour- 
age in the thought that our greatest buildings begin 
and have their foundation underground. 

I have written of women only, as teachers, because 
my work lies with infants. Of that greater work with 
those who have left childhood behind, I have little 
experience. Such as I have had has taught me that 
there should be as great a change in the life and work 
of these invalids as in that of normal children, who 
make and take it for themselves. I do not believe that 
abnormal boys can gain from life as much as they 
should, unless given at the time of adolescence the 
teaching and companionship of their own sex, and that 
they, and girls also, should have responsibilities as 
great as they are able to bear. 

The terrible results of war strain and shell-shock to 


sailors and soldiers, who are without doubt suffering 
for the common good, has roused a widespread desire 
among our wisest in all classes of society to face the 
new problems arising from war conditions,, and there 
is hope, indeed certainty, that the mental invalids we 
have always with us will benefit by the new light shed 
on their mysterious ills by the medical specialists who 
are working hard in the war hospitals. We hear of how 
associations are being formed, both religious and lay, 
for the work, and there seems hope that these dependent 
ones will have those ministering to them who will 
fulfil Matthew Arnold's wonderful words: — 

Then, in such hour of need 

Of your fainting, dispirited race, 

Ye, like angels, appear, 

Radiant with ardour divine. 

Beacons of hope, ye appear ! 

Langour is not in your heart, 

Weakness is not in your word, 

Weariness not on your brow. 

Ye alight in our van ! at your voice, 

Panic, despair, flee away. 

Ye move through the ranks, recall 

The stragglers, refresh the outworn, 

Praise, re-inspire the brave. 

Order, courage, return ; 

Eyes rekindling, and prayers, 

Follow your steps as ye go. 

Ye fill up the gaps in our files, 

Strengthen the wavering line, 

Stablish, continue our march, 

On, to the bound of the waste, 

On, to the City of God 

To this City one day our erewhile lowly little friends 
shall pass hand in hand with their parents and those 
who have worked for them on their passage over the 
bridge of this life, and together learn what is weakness 
and what is strength. 



Suitable Furniture. 

Chairs and Tables regulated so that the children's 
feet may be on the floor. 

Apparatus for Class Drill and Individual Exercises. 
Wands, Flags, Clipper-clapper, Hoops, Dumb- 
bells, Triangles, Mat for each child to stand on at 

Table, Ladder, Balancing Beams, Steps. 

Apparatus for Dancing. 

Scarves, Fans, Flowers, Tambourines, Bells, Hand- 

Instruments for Band. 

Tambourines, Drums, Castanets, Cymbals, Tri- 

For Lowest Stages. 
M. MacdowalV s Special Apparatus. 
Stands and Rings in various sizes. 
Ball-placing and Dropping Stands and Trays. 
Wooden Tablets for Threading. 
Wooden Blocks for first sewing lessons. 
Wooden Needles, flat and round. 
To be obtained from Mr. William Smith, 

12, Alacross Villas. 
South Ealing, London, W. 

Babies' Brown Sewing Cards. 

Large Bodkins for Sewing them with. 


Cardboard Rings for ball-making. 

Beads of every colour and size. 

Bamboos in all colours. 

Wooden Bowls for holding beads and bambooe, 

Note. — It is well to separate beads and bamboos for 
teaching form, and beads of different colours for teach- 
ing colour, until the child understands what he is to 
do, and can pick them out himself. 

Frames of slates, or made for the purpose, about six 
or eight inches square, for stretching canvas to 
teach darning stitch, and other stitches. 

(Imbeciles cannot work with limp material ; they 
must have resistance at first). 

Frames for Tying, Buttoning, Lacing, Hooking, and 

(It is important that these should be made loosely, 
so that no pulling is required until the process is 

Sleeveless Jackets, made in bright colours for the chil- 
dren to practise buttoning and tying on themselves 
and each other (more interesting than frames). 

Bags in Primary Colours of different size and weight, 
for teaching weight, size, colour and number. 

Montessori Apparatus, as described in her books, e.g. , 
" The Montessori Method " (Wm. Heinemann)— 
see also " The Montessori System/ 7 by Dr. Theodore 
L. Smith (Harper and Brothers), Board of Educa- 
tion, EducationaL Pamphlet, No. 24 (H.M. 
Stationery Office, price 2d.). 

Pictures drawn and painted of familiar common 
objects, one on each sheet , corresponding objects to 
be recognised from the picture. 

Pictures of all kinds, either in books or sheets, various 
enough to give many presentations of the same 

Clay, Sand and Plasticine, with models of animals and 


toys for houses and gardens, and trays for use with 

Gardening and Outdoor Play. 

Sandheaps, Watering Cans, Spades, Rakes, Hoes, 
Wheelbarrows, Buckets, Baskets, Hoops, Skip- 
ping-ropes, Bats and Balls, Toys to push and 
pull, e.g., Prams, Trucks, Horses, Carts, Scooters, 


Indoor Play. 

Tea Sets, Dinner Sets, Dolls' Houses, Bricks of 
every kind, Soldiers, Noah's Arks, Trains, Horses 
and Carts, Animals, Puzzles, Books, Dolls. 



Rug-wool and Canvas in every variety. 

Wool of all kinds. 

Bright-Eye in all colours. 

Cotton for knitting swabs. 

Crochet Hooks, Rug and ordinary. 

Knitting needles of all sizes. 

Macrame Boards, and strings. 



Bunting and Hessian (for first sewing lessons). 

Wool-needles, Carpet and ordinary. 

Round-topped Scissors. 

Materials for plain sewing. 

Cottons of all kinds and colours. 

Bundles of pieces for making-up finished work, 

ribbons, cloth, velvet, etc. 
Hessian and patterns of cloth, etc., for snipped 

cloth mats. 
Weaving apparatus, beginning with small frames 


with inch-wide braid in primary colours, and 
graded to ordinary weaving. 
String for bag-making. 


* Alphabets in great variety. 

Two-letter word sheets. 

Large reading sheets in as great a variety as 

Letters, small and large, in boxes. 
Reading boxes of separate words. 
Blackboards and Easels. 
Chalk in all Colours. 
Reading Books. 


Blackboards to be used for writing on at first. 
Phillips' Plain Copy Books, so that the copies may 

be set to fit in with the children's progress. 
Pencils, hard and soft, to be distributed to the 

children according to their power to press. 

Drawing and Painting. 

Hexagon crayons for beginners. 
Plain Cartridge Paper Books. 
Chequered Books of all sizes. 
Crayons and Paints. 

Number and Time. 

Counters, Shells, Cardboard Coins, Pegboards and 
Pegs, Clock Faces, Clock Puzzles. 

* Note. — The reason I teach the alphabet, even to 
children who would never read, is for eye and memory 
training alone. I am, therefore, careful not to say 
li A for apple," etc., as it is a difficulty when children 
have small use of words to know if they have a know- 
ledge of the thing itself, or only through connecting it 
with something else. 



Each lesson suggests its own. Much suitable appa- 
ratus can be got through Philips and Tacey, 69, High 
Street, Fulham, S.W., in connection with Miss Headon's 
Domestic Kindergarten lessons. Such material would 
serve a two-fold purpose: — 

1. Objects for lowest grade to learn. 

2. Objects for more advanced to use. 


From beginning to end the lesson would probably 
take an hour. Group the children in tens, giving 
thirty of them such handwork as they can do without 
help, yet take an interest in the lesson meanwhile. 

Group 1 begins the lesson, and at the end of fifteen 
minutes takes the place of Group 2, going on with 
bead threading, or whatever it may have been doing. 
Group 2 proceeds with the lesson for another fifteen 
minutes, then changes with Group 3, which finishes the 
lesson in the next fifteen minutes, leaving Group 4 to 
put everything away during the last fifteen minutes. 

The children should change at the lesson next day, 
Group 4 beginning, Group 3 taking the next turn, and 
so on. 

Lowest Division. 
Morning. Each Day. 

9.30. — Exercise — Table Exercises, Marching, Class 

10.0.— -Sacred Picture, Story, Hymn, Work with 
special apparatus. 

10.30. — Musical Games. 
1L 0. — Picture Lesson with Objects. 


11.30. — Outdoor Play (if possible). Ball Catching, 
Batting, and Throwing. 

Afternoon (Half the time, if possible, out of doors). 

2. 0. — Singing. 
2.30.— Ball-making. 

3. 0. — Dancing. 
3.30.— Bead Threading. 


10.30. — Speech Lesson connected with pictures and 

11. 0. — Drawing in metal insets. 
11.30. — Game, Bean Bags. 


2. 0. — Sewing on Block or Card. 
2.30.— Singing and Marching. 

3. 0.— Bead Threading. 
3.30.— Game. 


10.30. — Balancing Exercises on Ladder, Beam, and 

11. 0. — Buttoning and Lacing. 
11.30. — Imaginative Games, e.g., Trains, etc. 


2. 0. — Singing. 
2.30.— Ball-making. 

3. 0.— " Rough " and " Smooth " Lesson. 
3.30.— Sand Work. 


10,30.— Dancing. 


11. 0. — Sewing. 

11.30. — Object and Speech Lesson. 


2. 0. — Singing. 

2.30. — Lacing and Tying. 

3. 0. — Colour and Size Lesson. 
3.30.— Game. 


10.30.— Walking on Line. 

11. 0. — Buttoning and Tying. 

11.30. — Ball Throwing and Catching. 

After 7io on. 

2. 0. — Singing. 
2.30.— Weight Lesson. 

3. 0. — Drawing with Insets. 

3.30. — Dancing or Rhythmic Exercises. 


Shop Lesson. 
Free Play. 

Second Stage. 
Morning. Each Bay. 

9.30.— Drill, Marching. 

10. 0. — Sacred Pictures, Hymn, Story. 

Work with Montessori Apparatus, Insets and 
Tower and Stairs. 

10.30. — Alphabet and Speech Lesson. 

11. 0. — Drawing, Writing and Number. 

11.30. — Various Games, Ball Throwing and Catching, 
Hoops, Do pushing and pulling, or Game 
of the Imagination, etc. 



2. 0. — Singing. 

2.30. — Sewing Brown Cards. 

3. 0. — Lesson on the Uses of Common Objects. 
3.30. — Game or Balancing on Beam. 


2. 0. — Buttoning, Lacing and Tying. 
2.30. — Pictures and Colour Lesson. 

3. 0. — Canvas Work. 
3.30.— Rhythmic Exercises. 


2. 0. — Singing. 
2.30.— Ball-making. 

3. 0. — Picture and Weight and Size. 
3.30.— Sand Work. 


2. 0. — Walking on Line. 

2.30. — Buttoning, Lacing and Tying, etc. 

3. 0.— Lesson on Common Objects, and what they are 

used for. 
3.30. — Dancing. 


2. 0. — Ladder Walking and Grasping. 
2.30.— Weaving on Frames. 

3. 0. — Picture and Speech Lesson, connected with 

"Bough" and " Smooth." 
3.30. — Clay or Plasticine modelling. 



Shop Lesson. 
Free Play. 

Stages 3 and 4. 
Morning. Each Day. 

9.30.— Drill and Marching. 
10.0. — Sacred Picture, Story and Lesson. 
10.15. — Writing and Dictation. 

10.45. — Reading and Practical Understanding of 
Words through Objects, Pictures and 
Blackboard Illustration. 
11. 15. -*— Number and Clock Lesson. 


11.30. — Balancing on Ladder or Beam.* 


2. 0. — Singing. 

2.30. — Cooking Lesson with Handwork (groups, as 


Tuesday. • 

11.30. — Hoops or Balls, and Carpentry. 


2. 0. — Singing. 

2.30. — Laundry Lesson and Handwork (groups as 

3.30. — Macrame. 




11.30. — Gardening or Sand Work. 


2. 0. — Boot Cleaning and Handwork (groups as sug- 


3. 0.— Rug Making. 
3.30.— Dancing. 


11.30. — Gardening or Balancing on Ladder and 


2. 0. — Colour and Montessori Apparatus. 
2.30. — Knife Cleaning and Handwork (groups as 

3.30. — Rhythmic Exercises. 


11.30,— Skipping. 


2. 0. — Drawing or Clay Modelling. 
2.30.— Sewing. 
3.30. — Games. 


Free Play. 


Nelson's Royal King Reading Sheets and Primers. 

Brown's Reading Sheets and Primers. 

Oxford Reading Primers. 

Sonnenschein's Two-Letter Word Sheets. 

Nelson's Sets of Sacred Pictures. 

Tuck's Common Object Books. 

Tuck's " Something for Everyone " Books. 

The Book of School Handwork (Caxton). 

The Little Girl's Sewing Books. 

The Little Girl's Crochet and Knitting Book. (Edited 

by Flora Klickman.) (Published, 4, Bouverie 

Street, E.G.). 
Tuck's Big Book of Birds. 
Tuck's Single Animals. 
Alphabet of Many Lands. (Cox and Co., 99, New 

Oxford Street). 
The Children's Farm (Nister). 
Old Testament Stories (Blackie). 
New Testament Stories (Blackie). 
JVTiss Headdon's Household Object Lessons (Cox and 

Toy Models for Use with the Lessons (Cox and Co.). 

Boohs for Dancing. 

The Folk Dance Book, by 0. Ward Crampton. 

(Pitman) 3s. 6d. 

The Children's Dream, by Osborne Roberts. 

(Curwen) 2s. 

English Country Dances. (Curwen) 2s. 

Guild of Play Book of Festival and Dance. 

(Curwen) 5s. 


Follow My Leader, by M. L. Penn. (Curwen) 

Is. 6d. 
First Lessons in Rhythmic Gymnastics, by T. 

Keighley. (Curwen) Is. 6d. 

Songs and Singing Games. 

Old Surrey Singing Games. (Curwen) Is. 
Children's Singing Games. (David Nutt, 212, 

Shaftesbury Avenue). 
Finger Plays, by Emilie Poulsson. (Curwen) 

3s. 6d. 
Play Drill, by A. M. Bennett. (Phillip and Son) 

Is. 6d. 
Nursery Rhymes and Children's Songs, by J. F. 

Simpson. (Cramer and Son) Is. 

Nelson's Infant School Song Book, Parts 1 and 2. 

Golden Boat Action Songs \ 

Galloping Horses j /r>l x , r 

m i ii i • * • o r (Curw T en) Is. each. 

Toddlekins Action Songs 

The Dragonfly, etc. 

Action Songs, by May Gillington, Book 1. (Curwen) Is, 


' ' Abt Vogler, ' ' Browning . . . 

Action Songs 

Apparatus for Industrial Lessons 


, , Training 


Balance of Body 
Ball Making 

„ Placing and Dropping 
Band (School) 
Bead Threading 

Beam and Ladder for Grasping and Balancing 
Blackboard and Easel 
Bodily Functions, Control over 
Books Useful 
Boot-Gleaning Lesson 
Breathing Exercises 
Buttoning Lesson ... ... :.. 


... 94 
... 118 

90, 93-97 


... 36 

... 94 

39, 40, 44, 50 

... 28 


... 13 



... 28 

29, 43 

Cardboard Coins 

Rings ... 

"City of God," M. Arnold ... 
Clock Lesson 

Colour Teaching 
Cooking Lessons 
Creighton, Bishop 

... 49 
... 40 
... 26 
... 113 

22-24, 26 
... 53 

21, 26-27 

... 26 











Details of Training 




... ... 


Digestion, Aid to ... 


... 26 





... ... 


Dress, Teaching Children to 






... ... 





Equipment of Schools 

... ... 


Excitable Children 



Free Play 






... ... . 


General Training 

... ... . . 


Goddard, Dr. 

.-* . ... 


Gore, Bishop, on St. Paul 

's Teaching 

... 13 

Habits, Good and Bad 



... ... . 


"He and She" ... 

. . . ... . . . 

... 6-17 


... ... • 


Horizontal Ladder 

... ... 





Imaginative Children ... ... ... 10, 13-14 

Imbeciles 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 26-27, 31, 32, 52, 53 

Industrial Lessons ... ... ... 55-87, 118 

Introduction. ... .>. ... ...... vii.-viii. 

Involuntary Attention ... ... ... ... 33 

Ironing Lesson ... ... ... ... ... 86-87 




Joy of Life ... ... ... 5, 32, 54, 94, 98, 112 


Knife-Cleaning Lesson ... ... ... ... 58-63 


Lacing and Buttoning Lesson ... ... ... 43 

Ladder and Beam for Balancing and Grasping ... 28 


Marching ... ... ... ... 26,39 

Meals ... ... ... ... ... ...24-26 

Microcephalic Children ... .... ... ... 1.7 

Mongolian Children 14-17, 22, 23, 24-25, 26, 28, 89-90, 94, 98 

Montessori Apparatus .„ ... ... 39,40,44,50 

Moral Training ... .... ... ... ...20-21 

Move and Make Move ... ... ... ...88-98 

Muscles, Control over ... ... ... 13,14,90 

Musical Games ... ... ... ... ... 94 


Nervous Cases ... ... ... 6-10,22-23,24 

Number Teaching ... ... ... 43,49,53-54 


Obedience ... ... ... ... ...20-21 

Odd Moments, Employment of, ... ... ...27-29 


Piano, Learning to Play, ... ... ... ... 97 

Phonetic Chart ... ... ... ... ,..109 

Physical Exercises ... ... 39, 40, 43-44, 49, 93-98 

Physical Training ... ... ... 3, 13, 14 

Pictures 19, 39, 40, 43, 48 

Prefatory Note by Dr. Shuttleworth ... ... v. 


Reading Lessons ... ... ... ... 48-49,51-52 

Recitation ... ... ... ... 49,53 

Religious Teaching ... ... ... ...18-20 

Repetition ... ... ... ... 19,28 

Restoring Process ... ... ... ... ... 29 

Rug Canvass ! .., ,.. 40,44 




Sand, Bags of 


Sewing Lessons 

Shuttleworth Dr. 



Spastic Jerks 


Standing Machine 

Stands and Rings 

Table Exercises ... 
Tablet Threading 
Teacher and Atmosphere 
Teachers of Classes, Suggestions to. 
Teeth, Cleaning of, 

Toe Walkers 

Touch, Teaching Through 
Training, Apparatus for, 
Details of, 

„ Moral 

, , Physical 

, , Religious 
Tunnel and Train ... 


Walking Machine 

Walks, Daily 

Washing and Ironing Lesson 



Wooden Block Avith Holes 

Wooden Needles 

Writing Lessons 


... 43 


43, 49, 56 


44, 63-69 



30, 94, 97 

22, 30 

24, 25 


... 90 



... 39 

... 1-5 

... 118 

... 29 



... 13 

... 32 



... 18-30 

. . . 55-87 

. . . 20-21 

13, 14 

18-20, 30 

... 43 

... 90 

... 26 


... 26 

43, 47 

... 40 

63, 64 

47-48, 50-51